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What are the three major parts of the food service system?
Input, Transformation, and Output
What is an example of input?
- Human resources, labor
- Materials, foods, supplies
- Facilities, equipment
- Operational budget
What are some examples of Output?
- Customer Satisfaction
- Employee satisfaction
- Financial Success
What is the most important internal control of a food service plan?
When does competitive advantage occur?
When a firm is able to create more economic value for consumers than its competitors.
What is a commercial segment?
Food services in which selling food for profit is the primary activity of business.
What is onsite segment
Food service as a secondary activity for the business in which food service is located. e.g.-Airport, nursing homes
What kinds of food service segments are commercial?
Full service restaurants, casual dining, fine dining, hotel, bed and breakfast.
What are examples of onsite segment?
Hospitals, schools and colleges, senior centers, assisted living centers, skilled nursing centers, correctional facilities
What are the four categories of sustainability in food service?
- Built environment
- Water, ecosystems, and agriculture
- Energy and environment
- Materials and toxins
What are the possible stages a company can be at when managing sustainability?
- Stage 1-Legal Approach, company does only the legal requirement
- Stage 2- Market Approach, Company initiates some green initiatives in response to customer preference
- stage 3- Stakeholder Approach, Company works to meet environmental demands of employees, supplies, customers, community
- Stage 4- Activist Approach- Company actively pursues ways to respect and preserve the earth and its natural resources
What are the six approaches to Quality Improvement
- 1.Quality Assurance
- 2.Total Quality Management
- 4.Six Sigma
Why is menu planning important?
The menu us the primary control for the food service system and impacts all parts of the system
What are menu trends?
Current trends influencing the types of foods available for food service (organic, local, where food comes from, fair-trade)
What is a spoken menu?
Read the menu to the pt (healthcare)
What is room service?
Call, restaurant menu at a hospital
What is A la carte?
offering a variety of items
What is table d'hote?
Group of foods served at one price (packages)
What are the key elements in menu psychology?
- Eye gaze motion
- Primacy and recency
- Font size and style
- Color and brightness
- Spacing and grouping
What are the types of menus?
- Static: All patrons are offered the same foods every day. Once a static menu is developed and established, it rarely changes. Static menus are typically found in fast-food operations
- Single Use: Catering
- Cycle: Written for a specific period and then repeated
- Selective: Full selective- limited selective
What are the types of cycle menus?
- Typical cycle menu: Complete menus are repeated on a regular basis with no variation in a day
- Break Cycle Menu: Repeated but the day on which it is offered changes
- Random Cycle Menu: Complete menus are created and assigned a letter or a number code
- Split cycle menu: Popular items are offered more frequently
What are the different types of menu structure?
- Typical: Breakfast, lunch, and dinner
- Variations: 5 meal/day-Aware of people's personal habits prior to living in a care center
What factors should be considered when planning menus?
- Customer satisfaction
- Customers and demographic characteristics
- Food habits/preferences
- Nutritional Influences
- Aesthetic Concerns (color, texture, flavor, shape, consistency)
What factors affect menu planning?
- Local, state, and federal regulations
- Schools and long term care facilities that receive funding are required to meet menu guidelines
- USDA National School Breakfast and Lunch programs are defined in federal guidelines.
- Medicare and Medicaid have mandated guidelines: People who refuse food must be given alternative choices, No more than 14 hrs between a substantial evening meal and breakfast the following day
How are the factors affecting menu planning assessed?
- Plate waste: Amount of food left on plate
- Observation: Trained observers to estimate visually the amount of plate waste
- Self Reported Consumption: Individuals are asked to estimate their plate waste
What are the truths in menu writing?
- Quantity: Use of standard terminology
- Quality: Meet Federal and State Standards
- Price: Extra changes are noted to the consumer
- Brand Names: Any brand listed must be served
- Product Identification: Any substitutions are listed
- Points of origin: Very Specific
- Marking/merchandizing terms
- Food preparation (accurate, baked steamed, ect)
- Verbal or visual presentation
- Dietary claims
How is flavor categorized as salty, sweet, sour, or bitter?
- Balance among flavors
- traditional flavors
What is texture?
The structure of food detected by the feel of food in the mouth.
What is consistency?
Firmness, density, or viscosity
What is color on the plate?
eye appeal and helps merchandise food
What is shape of food?
Creates interest in a menu through the variety of forms in which foods can be presented
What is food service flow?
- Food product flow refers to alternative paths within food service operations food and menu items follow
- Alternative paths: increased productivity, decreased cost, strengthening control
What is conventional or traditional food service (advantage and disadvantage)?
- Food made and served on location
- Can alter diets fairly easily
- Staffing could be an issue-longer hours
What is Ready Prepare food service?
- Menu items prepared and stored later in advanced.
- Advantage: Staffing options, Quality staff when convenient for them, fewer staff needed for assembly, more efficient use of time.
- Disadvantages: pasta, fruit, not as fresh appearing, fried food, no crispiness
What is commissary food service?
- Prepare food in one place and serve it somewhere else
- Food technologist to constantly monitor HACCP
- Advantage: Requires minimal skill at assembly site but skill needs to happen at commissary site, purchase power becomes greater
- Disadvantage: Fried foods get soggy, Fresh foods (fresh foods held awhile)
What is assemble/serve food service?
- Food almost ready for service, facility only has little assembly required.
- Advantage: Mass amounts & same quality, minimal prep, staff, equipment, and minimal knowledge in staffing
- Disadvantages: No room for detailed food production
What is important in kitchen design/layout?
- Quantity of food and supplies
- Amount of production do onsite
- Type of production
- How will food be served to customers (holding, delivery, service equipment)
- What funds are available for renovations ( Project scope, quantity, qualities, supplies and equipment)
- Safety Issues that need to be addressed
- How many employees will be working in the space
- future changes in capacity
- operating costs
What and what type of stainless steel is the most common in commercial kitchens?
- No 304
- Inert chemically, stain proof, strong, and durable
What kinds of plastic is used in food service?
Synthetic, nonmetallic, polymeric compounds molded into various forms & hardened
What are some recommendations for design and equipment?
- Rounded angles/corners
- Turned-down edges
- Doors and covers should be properly sized
- Shelving should be removable and adjustable
What are the different types of lighting?
- Direct lighting: Certain light in a certain place
- Indirect lighting: Shines light over a space instead of aiming it at a particular spot
What is important when selecting flooring for food service?
Cleanibility and Durability
What are producers?
Farmers or ranchers who produce raw food food sold to processors or manufacturers.
What are processors/manufactures responsible for?
- The many forms of foods available to the customer
- Bulk up and sell in big quantities
What do distributors do who does it include?
- Transfer products from the processor or manufacturer to the supplier
- Includes: Wholesaler, broker, and manufacturer representatives
What is a wholesaler?
Distributors who purchase from various manufacturers or processors, provide storage, sell, and deliver products to supplies
What is a full or broadline wholesaler?
Carry large amounts of stock, permitting purchase of everything from frozen and canned goods to kitchen equipment and paper products.
What are specialty wholesalers?
Deal in particular product category such as meat, produce, dairy, paper and detergent
What are special bread distributors?
Customers or restaurant chains that purchase directly from the processor and hire a distributor to deliver product to their stores.
What is a broker?
- independent sales/marketing representative who contract with manufacturers, processors, or prime producers to sell and conduct marketing programs
- Do not take title to the products they sell
- Not employed by buyer
- Often have test kitchens to prepare products
- May see at food shows or demonstrations
What are manufacturer reps?
- Don't take title, bill, or set prices
- Greater product knowledge than brokers
- They know detailed nutrition information for RDs as well as options for low pro, sodium, ect
What are suppliers?
- Sell products to the customer (buyer)
- Food Service Managers often buy more often from from the supplier than the wholesaler
- A single supplier is a prime vendor
What are advantages of sustainability in marketing?
- Eliminate steps in the market channel
- aid the local economy
- allow buying food in smaller quantities
- maintain good public relations
- provide fresher food
What does COOL stand for?
Country of Origin Labeling
What is value added?
Increase in value cause by processing/manufacturing/marketing
What is value analysis?
- Deciding whether to purchase from oneself (make) or from suppliers (buy) in an ongoing process
- Consider: Quality, Quantity, Service and Cost
What are the 3 choices of value analysis?
- Produce the item from raw ingredients
- Purchase some ingredients and assemble
- Purchase the item in its final form wholesaler
What are the 3 types of specifications that apply to food service?
- Technical:Products with quality that can be measured objectively and impartially by testing instruments
- Approved Brand: Establishing a product of known characteristics
- Performance: measure the quality desired function the product will perform (Equipment, cleaning products, paper and plastic products)
What should written specifications include?
- Name and product or standard
- Federal Grade, brand, or quality designation
- Size of container (can size, weight)
- Count per container or approx. number per pound
- Unit on which price is based
What is the role of the USDA in meat specifications?
Numbering system for the identification of various cuts or types of meat products
What are Kosher foods?
Many of the jewish faith will only eat foods that are certified as being Kosher, a term meaning proper or acceptable
What is Halal inspection?
Religious related slaughter important to muslims translated as 'permissible'.
What is a haram food? What are some examples?
- Swine/Pork and its by-products
- Animals improperly slaughtered or dead before slaughter
- Animals killed in the name of someone other than allah
- Alcohol and intoxicants
- blood and blood by-products
What are packers' brands?
Many food producers use their own brand names & quality standards. Closely follow federal grades & standards, but with more flexibility than is allowed in the USDA system
What is can can cutting?
Open cans of different brands for comparison before placing major orders
What is formal purchasing?
Competitive bidding often required for tax supported institutions
What is informal purchasing?
At least two prices reviewed, quotes for telephone records maintained, some restrictions apply for tax supported institutions
What are some examples of formal purchasing?
- Bid buying: Occurs when a number of suppliers are willing to compete over price quotations on buyers' specifications
- Fix Bid: Often used for large quantities, particularly for nonperishable items purchased over a long period of time
- Daily Bid: 'daily quotation buying' often used for perishable products that only last a few days
- Line Item Bid: Each supplier bids on each product on the buyer's list, and the one with the lowest price is awarded the other
- All or Nothing Bidding: Suppliers bid the best price on a complete list of items
What is the purchase?
Interchange is a legal and binding commitment covered in the uniform commercial code (UCC)
What is 'just in time purchasing'?
Food service purchases products as needed for immediate consumption by the custimer without having to store and record products in inventory. popular in big metro areas