Digestive System

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Digestive System
2012-02-23 22:14:53
Med Term List Digestive System

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  1. achalasia
    disorder caused by lack of coordinated movement of esophogeal muscles and failure of sphincter at lower end of esophagus to relax
  2. achlorhydria
    absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice
  3. adhesion
    union of two surfaces normally separate; also any fibrous gland that connects them
  4. alimentary canal
    digestive tract
  5. anastomosis
    surgical formation of connection between two parts
  6. anorexia
    loss of appetite
  7. antrum
    part of stomach which lies between body of stomach and pylorus
  8. aphagia
    loss of ability to swallow
  9. ascites
    accumulation of fluid in abdominal cavity
  10. bolus
    food broken down into small pieces and mixed with saliva to form pasty, chewy lump
  11. borborygmus
    audible abdominal sounds caused by hyperactivity of intestine peristalsis
  12. cardia
    sphincter between stomach and esophagus
  13. cholangiography
    x-ray exam of bile ducts
  14. chyme
    liquid like material of partially digested foods and digestive enzymes found in stomach
  15. colectomy
    excision of the colon
  16. colonoscopy
    endoscopic examination of colon
  17. colonostomy
    surgical creation of opening between colon and body surface
  18. cholecystitis
    inflammation of gall bladder
  19. cholelithiasis
    gallstone formation in gall bladder or bile ducts
  20. cirrhosis
    scarring of liver associated with destrcution of liver cells
  21. Crohn's disease
    one of two types of inflammatory bowel disease; chronic disorder, can occur anywhere along GI tract but most common in ileum, characterized by ulcers, fistulas, and fibrotic areas of bowel
  22. deciduous teeth
    first set of primary teeth, baby teeth
  23. dyspepsia
  24. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  25. emaciation
    extremely underweight
  26. emesis
  27. endocrine
    ductless gland secretes into bloodstream
  28. enteropathy
    disease in the intestine
  29. epigastric
    above the stomach
  30. eructation
  31. esophogeal reflux
    when acid-containing stomach contents regurgitate from stomach to esophagus causing esophagus to being distended
  32. esophageal stricture
    abnormal narrowing of esophagus
  33. exocrine
    ducted gland secretes into various organs
  34. fissure
    split in epithelial surface of anal canal
  35. fistula
    abnormal passage between two internal organs, or leading to the body surface
  36. flatus; flatulence
    air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum
  37. frenulum
    strip of tissue joining undersurface of tongue to floor of mouth
  38. fundus
    upper portion of stomach, usually only contains air
  39. gastrectomy
    excision of all or part of stomach
  40. gastritis
    inflammation of stomach
  41. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of stomach and intestine marked by diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal cramps, and muscle pain
  42. gastroesophageal reflex
    backflow of stomach contents into esophagus
  43. gastroscopy
    inspection of stomach interior with gastroscope
  44. gastrostomy
    placement of tube into stomach
  45. gavage
    feeding through tube passed into stomach
  46. gingiva
  47. glossitis
    inflammation of tongue
  48. hepatitis
    inflammation of liver
  49. hypogastric
    below the stomach
  50. icterus
    yellow discoloration of skin due to elevated bilirubin (jaundice)
  51. ileostomy
    surgical passage through abdominal wall into ileum for drainage of fecal material
  52. ileus
    absence of peristalsis in intestine causing blockage
  53. irritable bowel syndrome
    abnormally increased/decreased motility of large and small intestine resulting in diarrhea/consipation; spastic colon
  54. jejunostomy
    creation of opening between jejunum and surface of abdominal wall
  55. laparotomy
    incision in abdominal wall
  56. lavage
    wash out an organ, stomach, bowel, etc
  57. lingual
  58. lithotripsy
    ultrasound crushing stones in gall bladder or kidney
  59. mastication
    chewing food in mouth
  60. melena
    passage of dark-colored, tarry stools due to presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
  61. mesentary
    membrane covering most of small intestine
  62. meconium
    first elimination of newborn; consists of bile, mucus, and tissure from intestine
  63. megacolon
    enlarged colon
  64. palate
    roof of mouth
  65. parotid glands
    large glands at angle of jaw that produce saliva
  66. peritoneum
    membrane that lines abdominal cavity
  67. peritonitis
    inflammation of peritoneum
  68. polyp
    mass of tissue or projection from surface of intestine
  69. proctoscopy
    inspection of sigmoid and rectum with proctoscope
  70. pylorus
    sphincter where food leaves stomach and enters small intestine
  71. reflux
    backward flow of stomach contents
  72. reflux esophagitis
    inflammation of esophagus due to backward flow of stomach acid into esophagus
  73. splenectomy
    removal of spleen
  74. steatorrhea
    greater than normal amounts of fat in feces
  75. ulcerative colitis
    second form of inflammatory bowel disease; characterized by ulceration of colonic mucosa
  76. vagotomy
    surgical transection of vagus nerve; decreases acid secretion of stomach
  77. viscera
    large interior organ in a body cavity (abdomen)