Biology 100 #3

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MaryHogan
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13730
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Biology 100 #3
Updated:
2010-04-09 21:08:11
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Bio 100 Exam 3
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Exam #3
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  1. Hybrid
    The offspring of two different varieties
  2. Alleles
    Genes that produce a feature
  3. Dominent
    Fully expressed (visable)
  4. Recessive
    No noticable effect on the organisms appearance
  5. Homozygous
    Identical alleles
  6. Heterozygous
    Two different allels for the same trait
  7. Incomplete Dominance
    Hybrids appearence in intermediate between parental varieties
  8. Principle of Dominance
    When parents differ in one characteristic, their hybrid offspring resemble one of the parents; not a blend of the two characteristics!
  9. Principle of Segregation
    When hybrids reproduce they have two types of reproductive cells: 1/2transmitting the dominate characteristic, the other 1/2 transmitting the recessive characteristic of the other parent
  10. Principle of Independent Assortment
    Dominence & segregation occur independently if there are two or more characteristics
  11. Genotype
    Genetic makeup
  12. Phenotype
    Physical (expressed) traits of an organism
  13. Blood type is determined by...?
    A glycogen protien on the surface of the blood cell
  14. Type O Blood
    • Can take transfusions from type O only!
    • Geno Type = ii
    • Antigens = A & B
  15. Type A Blood
    • Can take transfussions from type O & type A
    • Geno Type = iAiA; iAii
    • Antigen = B
  16. Type B
    • Can take transfusions from type O & type B
    • Geno Type = iBiB; iBii
    • Antigen = A
  17. Type AB
    • Can take transfusions from any blood type!
    • Geno Type = iAiB
    • No antigens!
  18. Pleiotrophy
    • Where a single gene affects more than one characteristic
    • Ex. Sickle Cell gene, Marfan Syndrome
  19. Polygenic Inheritance
    • When two or more genes affect a single characteristic
    • Ex. Skin color
  20. Epistatic Genes
    Mask the expression of other genes
  21. Monoecious
    Plants that produce both egg & sperm
  22. Hermaphroditic
    Animals that produce both egg & sperm
  23. Darwin's 4 Major Points
    • 1. Individuals not alike (some differances inherited)
    • 2. Individuals differ in reproductive sucess
    • 3. Individuals chances for reproductive sucess partly dependent on heredity
    • 4. Long time favoritism for more fit individuals over less fit individuals
  24. According to Darwin: The fittest individuals...
    Are those that leave behind the most genes
  25. Species
    A group of individuals with potential to interbreed and produce viable offspring
  26. 5 Agents of Evolution
    • 1. Genetic Drift
    • 2. Gene Flow
    • 3. Mutations
    • 4. Non-Random Mating
    • 5. Natural Selection
  27. Genetic Drift
    • Agent of evolution
    • Change in a gene pool of a small population due to chance
    • Ex. Following a volcanic eruption
  28. Gene Flow
    • Agent of evolution
    • Gain of loss of different alleles due to movements of individuals
    • Isolation reduces gene flow
  29. Mutations
    • Agent of evolution
    • Change in an organisms DNA that creates a new allele
    • Very slow process
  30. Non-Random Mating
    • Agent of evolution
    • Ex. Feminine selection
  31. Natural Selection
    • Agent of evolution
    • Most likely to cause change in a gene pool
  32. Morph
    When a population includes two or more forms of a phenotypic character
  33. Cline
    A graded change in inherited characheristics over a geographic continuum
  34. Speciation
    Evolution of a new species
  35. 2 Randon Processes That Generate Variation
    • 1. Mutations
    • 2. Sexual recombiations (independent assortment & crossing over)
  36. Major Factor Affecting Endangered Populations
    Reduced variation
  37. Reproductive Barriers
    Prevents mating by the less able
  38. Pre-Zygotic Barriers
    • Temporal Isolation
    • Habitat Isolation
    • Behavioral Isolation
    • Mechanical Isolation
    • Gametic Isolation
  39. Temporal Isolation
    • Pre-zygotic barrier
    • Breed at different seasons, times of day
  40. Habitat Isolation
    • Pre-zygotic barrier
    • Live in the same areas but not the same places
  41. Behavioral Isolation
    • Pre-zygotic barrier
    • No sexual attraction
  42. Mechanical Isolation
    • Pre-zygotic barrier
    • Sexual parts dont fit
  43. Gametic Isolation
    • Pre-zygotic barrier
    • Can mate, but no zygote is formed
  44. Post-Zygotic Barriers
    • Hybrid Inviability
    • Hybrid Sterility
    • Hybrid Breakdown
  45. Hybrid Inviability
    Hybrids don't survive
  46. Hybrid Sterility
    Hybrids are viable & will mature, but cannot reproduce
  47. Hybrid Breakdown
    First generation viable & fertile, but second generation feeble / sterile
  48. 2 Requirements For "Adaptive Radiation" To Occur
    • 1. New, different niche
    • 2. Reproductive barriers
  49. 250 Million Years Ago...
    • Land masses convege , forming Pangea
    • Reshaped biological diversity
    • Massive extinctions!!
  50. 180 Million Years Ago...
    Pangea begins to break apart
  51. 65 Million Years Ago...
    • Modern continents begin to take shape
    • Cool climate
    • Seas receed from coastal lowlands
    • Plants begin to die
    • Massive extinctions!!
    • Geologist find a thin layer of Iridium mixed with clay that corosponds to this date (common to asteroids / meteors)
  52. 10 Million Years Ago...
    India crunches into eurasia, beginning the formation of the Himalayan Mountains
  53. Urdovician Period
    Marine algae
  54. Silurian Period
    Plants appear on land
  55. Devonian Period
    Fish
  56. Carboniferous Period
    Forests
  57. Permian Period
    • Massive extinctions!!
    • Incects
  58. Triassic Period
    First dinosaurs
  59. Jurassic Period
    Dinosaurs rule
  60. Cretaceous Period
    • Massive extinctions!!
    • Dinosaurs go extinct
  61. Tertiary Period
    Radiation of mammals
  62. Quaternary Period
    Humans Appear
  63. Homologous Features
    Similar structure due to common ancestry
  64. Non-Homologous Features
    • Similarities due to convergent evolution
    • Ex. Coral snake vs king snake
  65. How To Uncover Evolutionary Relationships
    • Amino Acid sequencing
    • DNA sequencing
    • DNA - DNA hybridization
  66. Amino Acid Sequencing
    • Compare amino acid sequences in a protien
    • 104 amino acid positions
    • Human vs chimp = 100% match
  67. DNA Sequencing
    Measures nucleotide sequence of DNA segments
  68. DNA - DNA Hybridizaton
    Ex. Wednesday's lab exercise

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