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What do Cholinergic fibers release and what fibers are classified as Cholinergic fibers?
- Release acetylcholine.
- Preganglionic sympathetic, Preganglionic parasympathetic, and Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers.
What do Adrenergic fibers release and what fibers are classified as Adrenergic fibers?
- Release norepinephrine.
- Most postganglionic sympathetic fibers.
Where are adrenerci receptors found and what activates these receptors?
- Located in plasma membranes of target cells.
- Epinephrine and norepinephrine.
What are the two classes of adrenergic receptors?
- Alpha receptors
- Beta receptors
What stimulates Alpha receptors?
What are the two types of Alpha receptors and what are there functions?
- A1 : generally excitatory
- A2 : generally inhibitory
What stimulates Beta receptors?
What are the three types of Beta receptors and what are there functions?
- B1 : cardiac muscle stimulation and increased tissue metabolism.
- B2 : relaxation of respiratory passage and blood vessel smooth muscle.
- B3 : release of fatty acids from adipose tissue for metabolic use in other tissues.
What activates Cholinergic receptors?
What are the two different classes of Cholinergic receptors and what substances activate these in addition to ACh?
- Nicotinic receptors : nicotine
- Muscarinic receptors : muscarine toxin
Describe the structure and location of Nicotinic receptors.
- Located on ganglion cell surfaces.
- Always excitatory.
Describe the structure and location of Muscarinic receptors.
- Located on membranes of effector cells at the ends of all parasympathetic postganglionic fibers as well as some sympathetic cholinergic fibers.
- Can be both excitatory or inhibitory.
What is dual innervation?
Reception of both ANS divisions.