chapter 13

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  1. Japan began borrowing heavily from China's culture
    in the 5th and 6th century
  2. In what year were the Taika reforms enacted in Japan?
    646 CE
  3. What was the central purpose of the Taika reforms in Japan?
    to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor
  4. When the emperor moved his government from Nara to Heian,
    the aristocracy took over most of the positions in the central government.
  5. The Tale of Genji described
    the life at the imperial court at Heian.
  6. In the ninth century, what Japanese family dominated the imperial court?
  7. Bushi were
    warrior leaders in the tenth century who controlled provincial areas of Japan from small fortresses.
  8. Which of the following statements concerning the rise of a provincial military elite during the tenth century in Japan is not correct?
    The rise of the provincial elite corresponded to the recovery of the imperial government and its overthrow of the aristocracy of the court.

    • Correct answers:
    • -Within their little kingdoms, warrior leaders administered law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenue.
    • -Provincial elite families often arose from local landowners, estate managers, or local state officials.
    • -The provincial elite came to control land and labor locally and to deny these resources to the imperial court.
  9. Samurai
    mounted troops who served the provincial military elite.
  10. Which of the following statements concerning the nature of warfare among the bushi is most accurate?
    Battles hinged on man-to-man duels of great champions typical of the heroic stage of warfare.

    • other choices:
    • -The Bushi were notorious in their refusal to play fair.
    • -Battles depended on the Japanese phalanx of mounted samurai and massed assaults predicated on the willingness of the retainers to sacrifice themselves for their leaders.
    • -The bushi depended on infantry tactics, equipping the samurai initially with long spears.
    • -The introduction of gunpowder in the eleventh century allowed the bushi to rely on cannon and rockets as their primary means of assault.
  11. The rise of the samurai in provincial Japanese society
    reduced peasants to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked.
  12. The Gempei wars
    settled the power struggle between the Taira and Minamoto families.
  13. The end of the Gempei wars signaled the beginning of
    the Japanese feudal age.
  14. Which of the following was not a result of the growth of power of the provincial warrior elite?
    The Confucian precept that warriors should dominate the social and political world was strengthened.

    • Correct Answers:
    • -The relevance of Chinese precedents and institutions to the Japanese diminished.
    • -Pretensions to a heavenly mandate and centralized power became ludicrous.
    • -The emergence of a scholar-gentry was stifled by the reassertion of aristocratic power and prerogatives.
  15. In 838 the Japanese
    ceased to send official embassies to the Chinese emperor.
  16. The Ashikaga Shoguns who succeeded the Minamoto government at Kamakura
    drove the emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino and set up a puppet emperor in his place.
  17. Which of the following was not an early Korean kingdom?

    • early Korean kingdoms:
    • Silla
    • Yabo
    • Paekche
    • Koguryo
  18. The Korean bureaucracy...
    admitted members almost exclusively by birth rather than test scores.
  19. One of the major reasons for the Chinese failure to assimilate the Vietnamese was
    the lack of impact of Chinese cultural imports on the Vietnamese peasantry.
  20. The __________ reforms of 646 represented the culmination of centuries of Japanese borrowing from China and attempted to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolute ruler.
  21. __________ was the Japanese capital later called Kyoto.
  22. Written by Lady Murasaki, the __________ was the first Japanese novel.
    tale of genji
  23. The __________ were aristocratic Japanese of the ninth century who exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs.
  24. Regional warriors in Japan who ruled small kingdoms from fortresses were called __________.
  25. The mounted troops of the bushi, the __________ were loyal to local lords rather than the emperor.
  26. The ritual suicide practiced by defeated Japanese warriors was called __________ or hara-kiri.
  27. The __________ Wars were waged for five years from 1180 on Honshu between the Taira and Minamoto families.
  28. The military government established by the Minamoto following their defeat of the Taira was called the __________.
  29. __________ were military leaders of the military government established by the Minamoto.
  30. A Japanese warrior family who dominated the Kamakura regime, the __________ claimed to rule in the name of the emperor.
  31. A member of the Minamoto family, __________ overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336 to 1573.
    Ashikaga Takuaji
  32. A full-scale civil war was fought between rival heirs of the __________ between 1467 and 1477.
    Ashikaga Shogunate
  33. The __________ were warlord rulers of three hundred small states established following the disruption of the Ashikaga Shogunate.
  34. The earliest kingdom in Korea, __________ was conquered by the Han emperor Wudi in 109 B.C.E.
  35. he __________ tribe of northern Korea established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the Korean peninsula.
  36. __________ is the extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regionshorizontalparticularly in Japan and Korea.
  37. A kingdom in southeastern Korea, __________ allied with the Tang emperors of China to defeat their Korean rivals.
  38. Ritual bows introduced from China and indicating submissiveness and deference were referred to as __________.
  39. The first dynasty of the kingdom of Silla was the __________ dynasty.
  40. The Korean dynasty that succeeded the Koryo dynasty following the Mongol invasions was the __________ dynasty.
  41. The Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese who moved into the Mekong delta region at the time of the Vietnamese drive to the south were the __________.
  42. The Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese who lived along the lowland areas along the coast and who were driven into the highlands were the __________.
  43. The Hanoi-based dynasty of the north that ruled during the period of Vietnamese expansion were the __________.
  44. The dynasty that emerged in the frontier areas of south Vietnam and who challenged the Hanoi-based dynasty was the __________.
  45. The capital of the southern dynasty in Vietnam was located at __________.
  46. The purpose of the Taika reforms was to create a genuine professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army in Japan to match those of Han-Tang China.
  47. During the period of the bushi, combat frequently hinged on the outcome of man-to-man struggles between champions typical of heroic warfare.
  48. Zen Buddhism played a critical role in securing a place for the arts in this era of strife and destruction dominated by the warrior elite.
  49. The Silla monarchs of Korea strove to free themselves from the cultural baggage imposed on Korea by the Tang dynasty.
  50. The independent dynasties of Vietnam continued to rule through a bureaucracy that was a much smaller copy of the Chinese administrative system.
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chapter 13
2012-02-24 05:02:46

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