Ecology Lecture Test (2)b
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Pair bond between individuals
What's is the problem with defining monogamy?
Time. It is defined as a pair bond between individuals, but how long does that bond have to last? One season? For life?
What are some benefits to monogamy?
- Both parents could be required to be able to successfully raise young.
- Partners can share learned experiences, and don't have to deal with a novice.
a single member of one sex bonds with several members of the other sex
What is the most common form of polygamy
Define polygyny and then list some benefits to a polygynistic relationship..
One male with several females. Females benefit because the strongest male wins the harem, therefore the offspring have a genetically more fit father: this means the females offspring are more likely to survive.
Tell me about naked mole rats..
- hairless, burrowing rodent from Africa
- only one female breeds, but if she dies another replaces her
- caring for young is cooperative but only between breeding female nurses
So naked mole rats are a diploid only system, while insects like termites are a haplodiploid system, yet both are eusocial. How can this be?
When establishing a eusocial society, a species must be able to populate castes. Termites accomplish this task in a preordained fashion using a haplodiploid characteristic to distinguish castes. In naked mole rats however, there is not a haplodiploid system. Instead they rely on hormaonl signaling to populate their castes, thus estabolishing the eusocial type society. Not sure if this is true. It's my interpretation.
What is a latrine site?
Breeding naked mole rat females leave a chemical which inhibits other females, until she dies and another becomes the breeder.
sex role reversal: one female has several males, seen in a few birds
How can a polyandry type relationship develop?
A male builds a nest to attract female, she picks the best. Who raises babies? If it only takes one, who gets to leave? The male has more invested in the nest than the female does in the egg.
"one night stand", meet, copulate, depart (no continuing bond relationship)
Distinguish circumstances that would create a monogamistic, polyandristic, polygynistic, promiscuous type relationship.
- It takes two to raise child. Don't want novice.
- Only takes one to raise child. Male has more invested in nest.
- Female wants strongest male for his genes and protection.
- Only takes one to raise child. Male has no investment. Can leave.
This mating system -->_________________ is seen most in mammals.
Why is a promiscuous relationship seen most in mammals?
The female can get enough food to feed self and young (i.e., the male isn't needed.)
How can a social system with welfare or child support make humans more promiscuous?
the male can leave because the child would be cared for, the female might think less about the future because the state or legal system would insure that the child is cared for
Can an increase promiscuity lead to unwanted pregnancies resulting in an increase in the demand for legalized abortion?
Yes, according to Dr. T.
What determines the nature of mating systems?
Habitats and environment. The environments sets the standards. A monogomistic bird might choose a polygyistic relationship if the environment is better. Remember the graph.
How is female fitness measured?
It is measured by the relative number of grandoffspring.
Describe what polygyny threshold is..
if habitat quality within the breeding area is quite variable, females may choose to become polygynous rather than monogamous.
Describe selectivity: Males vs Females.
- males want to mate with anything of the same species if they can, this means potentially more offspring carrying their genes
- females are more selective, they are limited in the number of offspring they can produce to carry their genes so they want the best genes possible in the father.
In regards to polygyny threshold: Describe a situation in which a female may give up monogamy.
In general a female wants the greatest fitness possible, so if a male can defend a territory enough better than another male's territory (which is unmated) she may give up the opportunity to be monogamous for fitness in the mated male.
essentially adultery in human terms, it is when a female mated to one male mates also with another male.
Why would cuckoldery be essential in birds?
It reduces a female birds chances of mating with an infertile male. A bird doesn't know if the egg she is incubating is sterile (unfertilized).
change; descent with modification
Explain evolution in terms of successive generation and natural selection.
genes that produce advantageous phenotypes gradually are expressed commonly in populations through successive generations. Thus, this 'gradual change' or shift in allele frequency via natural selection through successive generations portrays evolution.
Read the bottom of page 18. It talks about religion and species stability.
There ~might~ be something on the test.
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