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  1. ´╗┐Cytotoxins
    • S. aureus
    • toxic for many cell types, including leukocytes, erythrocytes, fibroblasts, leukocytes, macrophages, and platelets
    • alpha, beta, gamma, delta toxins and Panton-Valentine (PV) leukocidin
  2. Exfoliative toxins
    • S. aureus
    • serine proteases
    • cause staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS)
  3. Enterotoxins
    • heat stable (100°C, 30 min)
    • resistant to gastrointestinal enzymes
    • mainly responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning
    • act as superantigen
    • also cause toxic shock when expressed systemically
  4. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)
    • heat stable
    • protease resistant
    • can penetrate mucosal barrier, causing systemic effect
    • acts as superantigen
    • causes toxic shock
  5. Nuclease
    • Hydrolyzes DNA;
    • function in pathogenesis unclear;
    • useful in identifying S. aureus
  6. Glycocalyx:
    • inhibits phagocytosis (antiphagocytic activity)
    • promote bacterial adherence
  7. Food-poisoning bacterial pathogens
    • G+
    • Staphylococcus aurous
    • Bacillus cereus
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • G-
    • Escherichia coli
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Yersinia enterocolitica
    • Vibrio
    • Campylobacter
  8. True zoonotic bacterial pathogens
    • The transfer of bacterial infection or disease strictly from animals to humans; no human-to-human transmission
    • Bacillus anthracis
    • Yersinia pestis
    • Pasteurella multocida
    • Bartonella henselae
    • Brucella spp
    • Francisella tularensis
    • Borrelia burgdorfer
    • Leptospira interrogans
    • Rickettsia rickettsii
    • Ehrlichia chaffeensis
    • Coxiella burnetii
  9. F. tularensis plate
    buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar containing L-cysteine
  10. Bacterial STD pathogens
    • Chlamydia trachomatis Obligate intracellular pathogen
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae: gonorrhea GNC
    • Haemophilus ducreyi: chancroid (painful ulcer) GNB
    • Treponema pallidum: syphillis, Facultative intracellular pathogen, Spirochete
  11. Thayer-Martin agar
    • Neisseria bacteria, including N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis
    • contains three antibiotics
    • 1. Vancomycin, killing all Gram-positive organisms
    • 2. Colistin, killing all Gram-negative organisms except Neiserria
    • 3. Nystatin, killing all fungi
  12. sheep blood agar (SBA)
    B. anthracis-
  13. cellulitis
    • soft-tissue infection
    • caused by S. pyogens with pus
    • C. perfringens with gas
  14. Myonecrosis
    • C. perfringens
    • (gas gangrene)
    • Most severe, life threatening (death in 2 days)
    • Painful, rapid destruction of muscle tissue; systemic spread with high mortality
  15. Lecithinase activity test
    • (culturing on agar plate with egg yolk)
    • α-toxin, a diffusible lecithinase, interacts with the lipids in egg yolk to produce a characteristic precipitate around the colonies
  16. Foodborne botulism
    • caused by eating foods that contain botulism toxin
    • neither emetic nor diarrheal form
  17. Cancer-associated bacteria
    • Streptococcus bovis: indication of colon cancer
    • Clostridium septicum: indication of colon cancer
    • Helicobacter pylori: causative agent of stomach cancer
  18. Respiratory diphtheria
    an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by thick pseudomembrane in pharynx and bulk neck
  19. Tellurite agar plate
    C. diphtheriae
  20. metachromatic granules
    • Methylene blue stains of specimens
    • metachromatic granules in cytoplasm
  21. Bacteria Agar
    • S. agalactiae: CAMP
    • C. perfringens: lectinase(egg yolk)
    • C. diphtheriae: tellurite
    • Neisseria: Thayer-Martin agar
    • H. influenzae: growth of H. influenzae requires both NAD+ (factor V) and hemin (factor X)
    • B. pertussis: Bordet and Gengou (BG) agar (glycerin-potato-blood agar)
    • L. pneumophila: buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar containing L-cysteine
    • F. tularensis: buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar containing L-cysteine
  22. Shiga toxin (Stx)
    • E. coli
    • Shigella
    • A/B 2A-5B
    • A-inhibit ribosome protein synth
    • hemolytic uremic syndrome
  23. extended spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBLs]
    • E.coli
    • multiple-drug resistance is increasing rapidly
  24. Elek test
    • C. diptheriae
    • in-vitro exotoxin test
    • immunodiffusion of toxin and antitoxin leads to precipitation
  25. A/B Toxin Table
    Image Upload
  26. vaccinations
    available against 6 bacterial pathogens: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, H. influenza type b, pneumonococcal
  27. B anthracis Vs. B. cereus
    Image Upload
  28. Botulism Toxin
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  29. Cholera enterotoxin
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  30. Enterobacteriaceae
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  31. GNB
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  32. Gram Negative Food Poison
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  33. Gram Positive Food Poison
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  34. Heat-Labile Enterotoxin LT
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  35. Nosocomial
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  36. Tetanospasmin Action
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  37. Tick Diseases
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  38. Bacterial baby-killers
    • •Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci)
    • •Neisseria meningitidis
    • •Escherichia coli
    • •Haemophilus influenzae b
  39. Strep Summary
    Image Upload
  40. Staph Summary
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  41. Pneumonia causers
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Card Set:
2012-03-22 01:43:04
Bacteria Micro

Bacteria Micro
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