A&P Immune System

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nora_phllps
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137333
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A&P Immune System
Updated:
2012-02-24 02:55:23
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Immune system
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Immune system
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  1. external/innate defenses, provide a nonspecific 1st line of defense.
    Skin and mucus membranes
  2. physical and hostile barrier composed mainly of keratin
    Skin
  3. by the action of hydrochloric acid or enzymes, kills most microbes
    Gastric juice of the stomach
  4. saliva and tears destroy bacteria
    antimicrobial proteins
  5. trap invading microorganisms in the digestive system and respiratory passageways
    mucus
  6. out compete many other organisms that could be harmful
    Symbiotic bacteria
  7. second line of defense, consists of mechanisms or agents that indescriminately challenge foreign invaders that are inside the body tissues.
    Internal defenses
  8. main phagocytes of the body
    macrophages
  9. first responders and become phagocytic when they encounter nfectious material, also secrete defensins
    Neutrophils
  10. weakly phagocytic but are important in defending the body against parasitic worms.
    Eosinophils
  11. ability to bind with, ingest and kill a wide range of bacteria
    Mast cells.
  12. large granular nonphagocytic lymphocytes that lyse a variety of pathogen infected body cells or abnormal body cell before the adaptive immune system has been activated.
    natural killer (NK) cells
  13. series of events that occur in response to tissue injury of any kind
    inflammatory response
  14. small proteins secreted by cells that have been invaded by viruses
    interferons
  15. enhances both innate and adaptive defenses
    complement
  16. total body response to infection characterized by elevated body temp.
    Fever
  17. third line of defense, able to change in order to fit the specific pathogen invasion.
    Specific immunity/adaptive defenses
  18. mechanisms and agents that target particular foreign substances
    adaptive immune system
  19. adaptive defenses weakness
    must first encounter the antigen before it can adapt to fighting it.
  20. provided by antibodies produced by B lymphocytes against conspicuous pathogens in the bodys' "humors" (or fluid)
    humoral immunity
  21. associated with T lymphocytes and has living cells as its protective factor against more elusive pathogens
    cell mediated immunity
  22. "antibody generating" trigger an immune response
    Antigen
  23. large molecules, able to stimulate the proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibodies.
    Complete antigens
  24. small molecules, not capable of stimulating the immune response, interact with the proteins of the body leading to allergies.
    Haptens or incomplete antigens
  25. specific part of an antigens makeup, immunogenic
    antigen determinants
  26. mechanism which the immune system is able to differentiate between self and nonself cells. collection of glycoproteins, exsisit on the plasma membrane
    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
  27. class 1-found in all cells
    class 2-found in APC's only, have both classes
    types of MHC
  28. primary agents of the immune response, wbc, originate in the bone marrow, but concentrated in lymphoid tissues
    Lymphocytes
  29. originate in the bone marrow, mature in bone marrow, oversee humoral immunity
    B lymphocytes
  30. originate in the bone marrow, mature in thymus, work in cellular immunity
    T lymphocytes
  31. capable of binding with a specific agent, displays unique proteins 10 to the 5th power compentent to produce immune response
    immunocompetent
  32. capable of binding to a specific antigen
    antigen receptors
  33. what determines what sepcific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and attack
    our genes
  34. a shuffling and recombining of gene segments during lymphocyte maturation

    by mixing a few 100 gene segments more than 1 billion can be generated
    somatic recombination
  35. engulf antigens and present fragments of these antigens on their surfaces (like signal flags)
    antigen presenting cells (APC's)
  36. most effective APCs known
    dendritic cells
  37. process of the B cell growing and multiplying to form an army of cells, capable of recognizing same antigen
    Clonal selection
  38. daughter cell of B cell, release antibodies
    Plasma cell
  39. produce antibodies, do not release their antibodies in response to the immediate antgien invasion, circulate in the body and respond quickly to eliminate any future invasion by the same antigen
    Memory B cells
  40. occurs on first exposure
    primary immune response
  41. anytime afterward when someone is re-exposed , faster, more prolonged and more effective
    secondary immune response
  42. occurs when a person suffers through the symptoms of an ifection
    naturally acquired active immunity
  43. occurs when body mounts an immune response to an direct antigen
    active humoral immunity
  44. occurs when a person is given a vaccine
    Artifically acquired immunity
  45. occurs when a person is given antibodies, which have already been manufactured.
    Passive humoral immunity
  46. occurs when a mother antibodies enter a fetal circulation via the placenta or breast milk
    naturally acquired passive immunity
  47. occurs when a person is given antibodies, antitoxins, antivenoms that have been harvested from another person or animal
    Artifically acquired passive immunity
  48. blood proteins that bind to sepcific antigens
    antibodies
  49. antibodies primarly circulating in the blood , abundant, released by plasma cells in late primary and secondary response
    IgG
  50. antibodies first to be released by plasma cells in primary response
    IgM
  51. occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins causing them to lose their toxic effect.
    neutralization
  52. occurs when antibodies cross link to antigens on cells, causing clumping
    agglutination
  53. occurs when soluble molecules are cross linked into large complexes that settle out of solution
    Precipitation
  54. complement binds to antibodies attached to antigens, and leads to lysis of the foreign cell.
    complement fixation and activation
  55. commercially prepared antibodies specific for a single antigenic determinant, used in medical test
    Monoclonal antibodies

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