A&P Immune System
Card Set Information
A&P Immune System
external/innate defenses, provide a nonspecific 1st line of defense.
Skin and mucus membranes
physical and hostile barrier composed mainly of keratin
by the action of hydrochloric acid or enzymes, kills most microbes
Gastric juice of the stomach
saliva and tears destroy bacteria
trap invading microorganisms in the digestive system and respiratory passageways
out compete many other organisms that could be harmful
second line of defense, consists of mechanisms or agents that indescriminately challenge foreign invaders that are inside the body tissues.
main phagocytes of the body
first responders and become phagocytic when they encounter nfectious material, also secrete defensins
weakly phagocytic but are important in defending the body against parasitic worms.
ability to bind with, ingest and kill a wide range of bacteria
large granular nonphagocytic lymphocytes that lyse a variety of pathogen infected body cells or abnormal body cell before the adaptive immune system has been activated.
natural killer (NK) cells
series of events that occur in response to tissue injury of any kind
small proteins secreted by cells that have been invaded by viruses
enhances both innate and adaptive defenses
total body response to infection characterized by elevated body temp.
third line of defense, able to change in order to fit the specific pathogen invasion.
Specific immunity/adaptive defenses
mechanisms and agents that target particular foreign substances
adaptive immune system
adaptive defenses weakness
must first encounter the antigen before it can adapt to fighting it.
provided by antibodies produced by B lymphocytes against conspicuous pathogens in the bodys' "humors" (or fluid)
associated with T lymphocytes and has living cells as its protective factor against more elusive pathogens
cell mediated immunity
"antibody generating" trigger an immune response
large molecules, able to stimulate the proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibodies.
small molecules, not capable of stimulating the immune response, interact with the proteins of the body leading to allergies.
Haptens or incomplete antigens
specific part of an antigens makeup, immunogenic
mechanism which the immune system is able to differentiate between self and nonself cells. collection of glycoproteins, exsisit on the plasma membrane
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
class 1-found in all cells
class 2-found in APC's only, have both classes
types of MHC
primary agents of the immune response, wbc, originate in the bone marrow, but concentrated in lymphoid tissues
originate in the bone marrow, mature in bone marrow, oversee humoral immunity
originate in the bone marrow, mature in thymus, work in cellular immunity
capable of binding with a specific agent, displays unique proteins 10 to the 5th power compentent to produce immune response
capable of binding to a specific antigen
what determines what sepcific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and attack
a shuffling and recombining of gene segments during lymphocyte maturation
by mixing a few 100 gene segments more than 1 billion can be generated
engulf antigens and present fragments of these antigens on their surfaces (like signal flags)
antigen presenting cells (APC's)
most effective APCs known
process of the B cell growing and multiplying to form an army of cells, capable of recognizing same antigen
daughter cell of B cell, release antibodies
produce antibodies, do not release their antibodies in response to the immediate antgien invasion, circulate in the body and respond quickly to eliminate any future invasion by the same antigen
Memory B cells
occurs on first exposure
primary immune response
anytime afterward when someone is re-exposed , faster, more prolonged and more effective
secondary immune response
occurs when a person suffers through the symptoms of an ifection
naturally acquired active immunity
occurs when body mounts an immune response to an direct antigen
active humoral immunity
occurs when a person is given a vaccine
Artifically acquired immunity
occurs when a person is given antibodies, which have already been manufactured.
Passive humoral immunity
occurs when a mother antibodies enter a fetal circulation via the placenta or breast milk
naturally acquired passive immunity
occurs when a person is given antibodies, antitoxins, antivenoms that have been harvested from another person or animal
Artifically acquired passive immunity
blood proteins that bind to sepcific antigens
antibodies primarly circulating in the blood , abundant, released by plasma cells in late primary and secondary response
antibodies first to be released by plasma cells in primary response
occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins causing them to lose their toxic effect.
occurs when antibodies cross link to antigens on cells, causing clumping
occurs when soluble molecules are cross linked into large complexes that settle out of solution
complement binds to antibodies attached to antigens, and leads to lysis of the foreign cell.
complement fixation and activation
commercially prepared antibodies specific for a single antigenic determinant, used in medical test