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What is the chain of infection?
- Infectious agent (causative agent)
- portal of exit
- mode of transmission
- portal of entry
- susceptible host
What is a resovoir?
Sites in which organisms can persist and maintain their ability to infect are essential for new human infections to occur. Such sites are called reservoirs of infection
What are portals of exit?
Ear, eyes, nose, mouth, mammary glands, vagina, seminal vesicles, anus, skin, broken skin, ear
The most common methods of transmission of HIV?
Unprotected sex with an infected partner
Eliminated as risk factors for HIV transmission?
- From infected mother to fetus
- Infection from blood products
What are portals of entry?
Usually the same as portal of exit. Compromise of body defense mechanisms enhances the ability of pathogens to enter the body
What is the infectious process?
- Incubation period
- Prodromal stage
- Illness stage
What are some of the bodies natural defense mechanisms?
What is the inflammatory response?
What is asepsis?
Absence of disease-producing microorganisms
What is asepsis technique?
an effort to keep the client as free from exposure to infection causing pathogens as possible
What is medical asepsis?
(clean technique) used to reduce the number of microorganisms and prevent their spread
What is surgical asepsis?
(sterile technique) used during client care, including surgery to prevent microbial contamination of an open wound or a sterile item
How do you assess client's defense mechanism against infection?
- Defense mechanisms
- Client susceptability
- client appearance
- laboratory data
What is the Analysis:Nursing Diagnosis
- Infection, risk for
- Nutrition, altered:less than body requirements
- Skin integrity, impaired
- social isolation
- tissue integrity, impaired
What are the stages of immune response?
What is recongition?
surveillance by lymph nodes and lymphocytes
What is proliferation?
Lymphocyte-->lymph nodes-->change to plasma cells
What is response?
Cell mediated: T-cells bind with antigens. T-cell becomes sensititzed and releases lymphocytes which attracts macrophages and thus destroy the antigens. (Killer T-cells)
What is effect?
Antibody of response of killer T cells couple with antigen and destroy or neutralize
What is natural active immunity?
results from having a certain disease, measles, immunity last a lifetime
What is natural passive immunity?
the acquisition of an antibody by one person from another, a baby born with the moms antibodies. Short duration
What is artificial passive immunity?
a person is given an antitoxin or immune globulin for short-term immunity to a specific disease. Rh factor problems
What is artificial active immunity?
an individual receives a vaccine, polio, and the person develops antibodies. Variable length of time
What are recommended vaccines?
HBV, HAV, diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, measles, mumps, rubella, pneumococcal, Hib, varicella, influenza, meningococcal, (rotovirus, HPV for high risk groups)
What are reactions to immunizations?
Local, sensitivity to culture medium or preservative
What are contraindications & precautions?
severe illness, pregnancy in rubella, previous anaphylatic reaction, encephalopathy from vaccine, anaphylatic reaction to inactive component of vaccine such as neomycin & yeast, fever, seizures, persistent crying, pregnancy in IPV, recent immunoGlobulin administration, preterm birth, timing of vaccines when recent vaccines have been given
What should you know about proper administration?
- Proper storage
- Expiration dates
What is the Nursing Agenda for Health Care Reform?
- Focus should be on wllness and care rather than illness and cure
- clients are better educated and want more involvement in self care
What are the purposes of the NAHCR?
- maintain health and promote wellness
- Restore health
- living as well as possible with impaired function
What is teaching and learning?
- Teaching is interactive communication of knowledge
- Learning is deliberately acquiring new knowledge
What is the communication/teaching process?
- Sender/teacher-referent (idea/learning objective) surrounded by culture, values, knowledge, philosophy
- Message/content-channels, methods
- Receiver/learned-feedback (true meaning/evaluation of learning) surrounded by culture, values, knowledge, philosophy
What are the 3 domains of learning?
- Cognitive-Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation
- Affective-receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characteristics by value set
- Psychomotor-perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaption, origination.
What are teh basic principles of learning?
- motivation to learn
- ability to learn
- learning environment
What is the nursing process and learning process?
Assessment, Analysis, Planning, Implementation, Evalution
What is assessment?
- Expectations for learning
- learning needs
- teaching environment
- appropriate resources
- health literacy & learning disabilities
What is analysis?
- Nursing diagnosis
- What does the client need information about to increase self-care ability?
- What does the client have knowledge about, but is ready to learn more:
What is implementation?
- Build on existing knowlege
- Use teaching approach appropriate for situation
- How can teaching be efficiently integrated with nursing care?
- Instructional methods vary depending on clients needs and resources availabe
What are teaching approaches?
What are instructional methods?
- group instruction
- prepartory instruction
- role playing
What is evaluation?
- Measure of success
- writtenor verbal testing
- modify based on success
- Nurses have a legal responsibility to document steps of the teaching process
- Document assessment of readiness to learn
- Document any barriers to learning
- Document clients participation in planning
- Document implementation
- Document evaluation