Usually the same as portal of exit. Compromise of body defense mechanisms enhances the ability of pathogens to enter the body
What is the infectious process?
What are some of the bodies natural defense mechanisms?
What is the inflammatory response?
What is asepsis?
Absence of disease-producing microorganisms
What is asepsis technique?
an effort to keep the client as free from exposure to infection causing pathogens as possible
What is medical asepsis?
(clean technique) used to reduce the number of microorganisms and prevent their spread
What is surgical asepsis?
(sterile technique) used during client care, including surgery to prevent microbial contamination of an open wound or a sterile item
How do you assess client's defense mechanism against infection?
What is the Analysis:Nursing Diagnosis
Infection, risk for
Nutrition, altered:less than body requirements
Skin integrity, impaired
tissue integrity, impaired
What are the stages of immune response?
What is recongition?
surveillance by lymph nodes and lymphocytes
What is proliferation?
Lymphocyte-->lymph nodes-->change to plasma cells
What is response?
Cell mediated: T-cells bind with antigens. T-cell becomes sensititzed and releases lymphocytes which attracts macrophages and thus destroy the antigens. (Killer T-cells)
What is effect?
Antibody of response of killer T cells couple with antigen and destroy or neutralize
What is natural active immunity?
results from having a certain disease, measles, immunity last a lifetime
What is natural passive immunity?
the acquisition of an antibody by one person from another, a baby born with the moms antibodies. Short duration
What is artificial passive immunity?
a person is given an antitoxin or immune globulin for short-term immunity to a specific disease. Rh factor problems
What is artificial active immunity?
an individual receives a vaccine, polio, and the person develops antibodies. Variable length of time
What are recommended vaccines?
HBV, HAV, diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, measles, mumps, rubella, pneumococcal, Hib, varicella, influenza, meningococcal, (rotovirus, HPV for high risk groups)
What are reactions to immunizations?
Local, sensitivity to culture medium or preservative
What are contraindications & precautions?
severe illness, pregnancy in rubella, previous anaphylatic reaction, encephalopathy from vaccine, anaphylatic reaction to inactive component of vaccine such as neomycin & yeast, fever, seizures, persistent crying, pregnancy in IPV, recent immunoGlobulin administration, preterm birth, timing of vaccines when recent vaccines have been given
What should you know about proper administration?
What is the Nursing Agenda for Health Care Reform?
Focus should be on wllness and care rather than illness and cure
clients are better educated and want more involvement in self care
What are the purposes of the NAHCR?
maintain health and promote wellness
living as well as possible with impaired function
What is teaching and learning?
Teaching is interactive communication of knowledge
Learning is deliberately acquiring new knowledge
What is the communication/teaching process?
Sender/teacher-referent (idea/learning objective) surrounded by culture, values, knowledge, philosophy
Receiver/learned-feedback (true meaning/evaluation of learning) surrounded by culture, values, knowledge, philosophy