04 Study Guide

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Author:
NursyDaisy
ID:
137371
Filename:
04 Study Guide
Updated:
2012-04-30 23:03:09
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Pathophysiology
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Description:
Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids and Bases
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  1. The total water loss per day in the adult is approximately:
    A. 2.8 liters.
    B. 1.8 liters.
    C. 2.2 liters.
    D. 1.2 liters.
    E. 0.8 liter.
    A. 2.8 liters.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Of the 60% of the body weight made up of water, about two thirds is:
    A. extracellular water.
    B. interstitial water.
    C. intracellular water.
    D. intravascular water.
    e. None of the above is correct.
    C. intracellular water.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Sodium is responsible for:
    A. osmotic equilibrium.
    B. TWB osmolality.
    C. ICF osmotic balance.
    D. ECF osmotic balance.
    D. ECF osmotic balance.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. A milliequivalent is a unit of:
    A. osmotic concentration.
    B. mass.
    C. physical activity.
    D. chemical activity.
    D. chemical activity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which statement is true?
    A. The number of ions and anions in the body must be equal.
    B. Intravascular molecules of protein are without charge.
    C. The positive and negative charges in blood plasma must be equal to each other.
    D. The sodium ions must be united with chloride ions.
    C. The positive and negative charges in blood plasma must be equal to each other.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Aldosterone controls ECF volume by:
    A. Both b and d are correct.
    B. potassium reabsorption.
    C. water reabsorption.
    D. carbohydrate, fat, and protein catabolism.
    E. sodium reabsorption.
    A. Both b and d are correct. (b. sodium reabsorption. d. water reabsorption.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The release of ADH is not stimulated by:
    A. stress.
    B. hyponatremia.
    C. hypernatremia.
    D. an increase in plasma osmolality.
    E. a decrease in plasma volume.
    B. hyponatremia.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Hydrostatic pressure
    A. pressure of blood within the capillaries
    B. water-pulling effect of plasma proteins
    C. movement of fluid through semipermeable membranes
    D. mechanism to move fluid to lymph glands
    A. pressure of blood within the capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Oncotic pressure
    A. water-pulling effect of plasma proteins
    B. mechanism to move fluid to lymph glands
    C. pressure of blood within the capillaries
    D. movement of fluid through semipermeable membranes
    A. water-pulling effect of plasma proteins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Laboratory studies of an adult reveal the following:
    Plasma sodium = 110mEq/L
    Plasma chloride = 85 mEq/L
    Plasma potassium = 4.8 mEq/L
    Plasma calcium = 5.2 mEq/L
    Plasma bicarbonate = 26 mEq/l
    The most likely alteration is:
    A. calcium deficit.
    B. hypokalemia.
    C. base bicarbonate deficit (metabolic acidosis).
    D. hyponatremia.
    E. base bicarbonate excess (metabolic alkalosis).
    D. hyponatremia.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. An individual suffers from weakness, dizziness, irritability, and intestinal cramps. Laboratory studies reveal the following:
    Plasma sodium = 138 mEq/L
    Plasma potassium = 6.8 mEq/L
    Blood pH = 7.38
    Plasma bicarbonate - 25 mEq/L
    An EKG with tall, peaked T wave but otherwise normal.
    The individual is suffering from:
    A. hypercalcemia.
    B. hyperkalemia.
    C. hypernatremia.
    D. hypokalemia.
    E. hyponatremia.
    B. hyperkalemia.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. An acid is:
    A. an anion.
    B. a substance/chemical that combines with a hydrogen ion to lower pH.
    C. a substance/chemical that donates a hydrogen ion or a proton to the solution.
    D. a cation.
    C. a substance/chemical that donates a hydrogen ion or a proton to the solution.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Strong acids:
    a. include phosphoric acid.
    b. contribute to many H+ to the solution.
    c. have a pH of 7.
    d. have a pH of 14.
    e. are eliminated by the renal tubules.
    f. are good buffers.
    • a. include phosphoric acid.
    • b. contribute to many H+ to the solution.
    • e. are eliminated by the renal tubules.
  14. The blood pH is maintained near 7.4 by buffering systems. The sequence from the fastest acting to the slowest acting system is:
    A. blood buffers, lungs, kidneys.
    B. lungs, kidneys, blood buffers.
    C. blood buffers, kidneys, lungs.
    D. lungs, blood buffers, kidneys.
    A. blood buffers, lungs, kidneys.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The pH of saliva is about 7 and the pH of gastric juice is about 2. How many times more concentrated is the hydrogen ion in gastric juice than in saliva?
    A. 100,000
    B. 5
    C. 10,000
    D. 100
    E. 50
    A. 100,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which would not shift the blood pH toward alkalosis?
    A. exhalation of carbon dioxide
    B. hydrogen ion secretion into urine
    C. bicarbonate ion secretion into urine
    d. All of the above would shift the blood pH toward alkalosis.
    e. None of the above would do so.
    C. bicarbonate ion secretion into urine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. A young female became agitated and apprehensive, and she eventually lost consciousness. At the hospital emergency room, the following laboratory values were obtained:
    Plasma sodium = 137 mEq/L
    Plasma potassium = 5.0 mEq/L
    Blood pH = 7.53
    Serum CO2 = 22 mm Hg
    Plasma bicarbonate - 24 mEq/L
    Her immediate diagnosis was:
    A. hypokalemia.
    B. respiratory alkalosis
    C. respiratory acidosis
    D. metabolic alkalosis
    E. metabolic acidosis
    B. repiratory alkalosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. As HCO3- shifts from the red blood cell to the blood plasma, it is expected that the plasma:
    A. K+ increases.
    B. pH decreases.
    C. Na+ increases.
    D. Cl- shifts into the red blood cell.
    D.Cl- shifts into the red blood cell.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Respiratory acidosis
    A. diabetes
    B. chronic diarrhea
    C. emphysema
    D. excessive baking soda ingestion
    E. severe anxiety
    C. emphysema
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Respiratory alkalosis
    A. emphysema
    B. excessive baking soda ingestion
    C. severe anxiety
    D. diabetes
    E. chronic diarrhea
    C. severe anxiety
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Metabolic alkalosis
    A. diabetes
    B. emphysema
    C. excessive baking soda ingestion
    D. chronic diarrhea
    E. severe anxiety
    C. excessive baking soda ingestion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Respiratory acidosis
    A. kidneys excrete H+ and retain HCO3
    B. respirations decrease, more CO2 is retained
    C. kidneys retain H+ and excrete HCO3
    D. respirations increase, more CO2 is eliminated
    A. kidneys excrete H+ and retain HCO3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Respiratory alkalosis
    A. kidneys excrete H+ and retain HCO3
    B. respirations decrease, more CO2 is retained
    C. kidneys retain H+ and excrete HCO3
    D. respirations increase, more CO2 is eliminated
    C. kidneys retain H+ and excrete HCO3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Metabolic acidosis
    A. respirations increase, more CO2 is eliminated
    B. kidneys excrete H+ and retain HCO3
    C. respirations decrease, more CO2 is retained
    D. kidneys retain H+ and excrete HCO3
    A. respirations increase, more CO2 is eliminated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. An elevated anion gap is associated with an accumulation of:
    A. lactate anion.
    B. Neither a nor b are correct.
    C. Both a and b are correct.
    D. chloride anions.
    A. lactate anion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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