13 Study Guide

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Author:
NursyDaisy
ID:
137380
Filename:
13 Study Guide
Updated:
2012-04-30 21:15:08
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Pathophysiology
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Description:
Pain, Temperature, Sleep, and Sensory Function
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  1. Basic perception of pain
    A. cortex
    B. brainstem
    C. A fibers
    D. postcentral gyrus
    E. nociceptive receptors
    D. postcentral gyrus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Initiation of pain stimulus
    A. nociceptive receptors
    B. A fibers
    C. postcentral gyrus
    D. cortex
    E. brainstem
    A. nociceptive receptors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Discrimination and precision given to painful stimulus
    A. nociceptive receptors
    B. A fibers
    C. postcentral gyrus
    D. cortex
    E. brainstem
    D. cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Endorphins:
    A. may increase or decrease pain sensations.
    B. increase pain sensations.
    C. decrease pain sensations.
    D. have no effect on pain sensations.
    C. decrease pain sensations.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Referred pain from upper abdominal diseases involves:
    A. L2 to L4.
    B. the gluteal regions, posterior thighs, and calves.
    C. the sacral region.
    D. T8, L1, and L2.
    D. T8, L1, and L2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. In the gate control theory of pain:
    A. Both a and b are correct.
    B. a "closed gate" increases pain perception.
    C. stimulation of large A fibers "closes the gate".
    D. Neither a nor b is correct.
    C. stimulation of large A fibers "closes the gate".
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which is not a neuromodulator of pain?
    A. lymphokines
    B. heparin
    C. prostaglandins
    D. 5-hydroxytyptamine
    E. norepinephrine
    B. heparin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Interleukin-1:
    a. raises the hypothalamic set point.
    b. is an endogenous pyrogen.
    c. is stimulated by exogenous pyrogens.
    d. None of the above is correct.
    e. a, b, and c are correct.
    e. a, b, and c are correct. (a. raises the hypothalamic set point. b. is an endogenous pyrogen. c. is stimulated by exogenous pyrogens.)
  9. Increased serum levels of epinephrine increase body temperature by:
    A. increasing shivering.
    B. increasing heat production.
    C. increasing muscle tone.
    D. decreasing basal metabolic rate.
    B. increasing heat production.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. In heatstroke:
    A. Both b and c are correct.
    B. sodium loss follows sweating.
    C. core temperature usually does not exceed 101° F.
    D. core temperature increases as the regulatory center fails.
    D. core temperature increases as the regulatory center fails.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which is involved in fever?
    A. endotoxins
    B. tumor necrosis factor
    C. elevation of the set point in the hypothalamus
    D. a, b, and c are correct
    E. Both a and b are correct
    D. a, b, and c are correct. (a. tumor necrosis factor b. endotoxins c. elevation of the set point in the hypothalamus.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. In hypothermia:
    A. the hypothalamic center prevents shivering.
    B. the viscosity of blood is decreased.
    C. acidosis can develop.
    d. All of the above are correct.
    C. acidosis can develop.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Although non-REM and REM sleep are defined by electrical recordings, they are characterized by physiologic events. Which does not occur?
    A. During non-REM, levels of corticosteroids increase.
    B. During non-REM, cerebral blood flow to the cortex decreases.
    C. During non-REM sleep, muscle tone decreases.
    D. Non-REM is initiated by withdrawal neurotransmitters from the reticular formation.
    A. During non-REM, levels of corticosteroids increase.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Ménière disease:
    A. is caused by impacted cerumen.
    B. disrupts both vestibular and hearing functions.
    C. is the common cause of sensorineural hearing loss.
    D. affects the outer ear.
    B. disrupts both vestibular and hearing functions.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Acute otitis media (AOM):
    A. is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
    B. displays a tympanic membrane progressing from erythema to opaqueness with bulging.
    C. has breast-feeding as a risk factor.
    D. has no genetic determinants.
    B. displays a tympanic membrane progressing from erythema to opaqueness with bulging.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD):
    A. exhibits retinal detachment and loss of photo-receptors.
    B. exhibits loss of accommodation.
    C. has a higher incidence in hypotensive individuals.
    D. occurs in individuals before the age of 60 years.
    A. exhibits retinal detachment and loss of photo-receptors.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Vestibular nystagmus:
    A. may be caused by alterations in nervous system from receptor to the cerebral cortex.
    B. causes a diminished sense of the position of body parts.
    C. is the sensation of spinning.
    D. is the constant, involuntary movement of the eyeball caused by ear disturbances.
    D. is the constant, involuntary movement of the eyeball caused by ear disturbances.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Sleep apnea:
    a. is lack of breathing during sleep.
    b. can result from airway obstruction during sleep.
    c. is associated with jet-lag syndrome.
    d. All of the above are correct.
    e. Both a and b are correct.
    e. Both a and b are correct. (a. is lack of breathing during sleep. b. can result from airway obstruction during sleep.)
  19. Individuals affected by sleep apnea may experience:
    a. polycythemia.
    b. cyanosis.
    c. pulmonary hypertension.
    d. All of the above are correct.
    d. All of the above are correct.
  20. Blepharitis
    A. complete loss of smell
    B. inflammation of the eyelids
    C. reduction of dimness of vision
    D. infection of the cornea
    E. inflammation of the semicircular canals
    F. weak muscle in one of the eyes
    G. high intraocular pressures
    H. inflammation of mucous membrane covering the eyeball
    I. decreased taste sensation
    J. elevated intraocular pressure
    B. inflammation of the eyelids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Strabismus
    A. inflammation of mucous membrane covering the eyeball
    B. elevated intraocular pressure
    C. high intraocular pressures
    D. complete loss of smell
    E. inflammation of the eyelids
    F. reduction of dimness of vision
    G. decreased taste sensation
    H. infection of the cornea
    I. weak muscle in one of the eyes
    J. inflammation of the semicircular canals
    I. weak muscle in one of the eyes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Anosmia
    A. high intraocular pressures
    B. inflammation of the semicircular canals
    C. weak muscle in one of the eyes
    D. elevated intraocular pressure
    E. inflammation of mucous membrane covering the eyeball
    F. infection of the cornea
    G. reduction of dimness of vision
    H. inflammation of the eyelids
    I. complete loss of smell
    J. decreased taste sensation
    I. complete loss of smell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Hypogeusia
    A. elevated intraocular pressure
    B. weak muscle in one of the eyes
    C. inflammation of mucous membrane covering the eyeball
    D. reduction of dimness of vision
    E. inflammation of the semicircular canals
    F. infection of the cornea
    G. high intraocular pressures
    H. inflammation of the eyelids
    I. complete loss of smell
    J. decreased taste sensation
    J. decreased taste sensation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Vertigo
    A. high intraocular pressures
    B. inflammation of the semicircular canals
    C. complete loss of smell
    D. weak muscle in one of the eyes
    E. decreased taste sensation
    F. elevated intraocular pressure
    G. inflammation of mucous membrane covering the eyeball
    H. reduction of dimness of vision
    I. infection of the cornea
    J. inflammation of the eyelids
    B. inflammation of the semicircular canals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Glaucoma
    A. complete loss of smell
    B. inflammation of mucous membrane covering the eyeball
    C. decreased taste sensation
    D. infection of the cornea
    E. high intraocular pressures
    F. weak muscle in one of the eyes
    G. reduction of dimness of vision
    H. inflammation of the eyelids
    I. inflammation of the semicircular canals
    J. elevated intraocular pressure
    J. elevated intraocular pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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