23 Study Guide

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Author:
NursyDaisy
ID:
137390
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23 Study Guide
Updated:
2012-04-30 13:57:49
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Pathophysiology
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Description:
Alterations of Cardiovascular Function
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  1. Arteriosclerosis raises the systolic blood pressure by:
    A. increasing arterial distensibility and vessel lumen radius or diameter.
    B. decreasing arterial distensibility and increasing vessel lumen radius or diameter.
    C. decreasing arterial distensibility and lumen diameter.
    D. increasing arterial distensibility and decreasing vessel lumen radius or diameter.
    e. None of the above is correct.
    C. decreasing arterial distensibility and lumen diameter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Events in the development of atherosclerotic plaque include all of the following except:
    A. accumulation of LDL (low-density lipoprotein).
    B. complement activation.
    C. calcification.
    D. decreased elasticity.
    E. smooth muscle proliferation.
    B. complement activation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. G.P. is a 50-year-old male who was referred for evaluation of blood pressure. If he has a high diastolic blood pressure, which of the following is G.P.'s reading?
    A. 95/68 mm Hg
    B. 140/72 mm Hg
    C. 140/82 mm Hg
    D. 160/72 mm Hg
    E. 130/95 mm Hg
    E. 130/95 mm Hg
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The complications of uncontrolled hypertension include all of the following except:
    A. cerebrovascular accidents.
    B. anemia.
    C. renal injury.
    D. cardiac hypertrophy.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    B. anemia.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Primary hypertension:
    A. results from arterial coarctation.
    B. can be caused by hormone imbalance.
    C. b, c, and d are correct.
    D. is essentially idiopathic.
    E. can be caused by renal disease.
    D. is essentially idiopathic.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Orthostatic hypotension is caused by all of the following except:
    A. autonomic nervous system dysfunction.
    B. increased age.
    C. increased blood volume.
    D. severe varicose veins.
    E. bed rest.
    C. increased blood volume.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Localized outpouching of a vessel wall or heart chamber is:
    A. an aneurysm.
    B. an embolus.
    C. a vegetation.
    D. a thromboembolus.
    E. a thrombus.
    A. an aneurysm.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which is a possible cause of varicose veins?
    A. trauma to the saphenous veins.
    B. a, b, and c are correct.
    C. long periods of standing
    D. both b and c are correct.
    E. gravitational forces on blood
    B. a, b, and c are correct. (a. gravitational forces on blood b. long periods of standing c. trauma to the saphenous veins.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. A 76-year-old male came to the emergency room after experiencing chest pain while shoveling snow. Laboratory tests revealed essentially normal blood levels of SGOT, CPK, and LDH enzymes. The chest pain was relieved following rest and nitroglycerin therapy. The most probably diagnosis is:
    A. acute pancreatitis.
    B. emphysema.
    C. myocardial infarction.
    D. angina pectoris.
    E. hepatic cirrhosis.
    D. angina pectoris.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Complications of an infarcted myocardium likely could include (More than one answer may be correct):
    a. emphysema.
    b. heart failure.
    c. endocarditis.
    d. death.
    e. systemic thromboembolism.
    • b. heart failure.
    • d. death.
    • e. systemic thromboembolism.
  11. In pericardial effusion:
    A. fibrotic lesions obliterate the pericardial cavity.
    B. tamponade compresses the right heart before affecting other structures.
    C. Both c and d are correct.
    D. there is associated rheumatoid arthritis.
    E. arterial blood pressure during expiration exceeds that during inspiration.
    C. Both c and d are correct. (c. tamponade compresses the right heart before affecting other structures. d. arterial blood pressure during expiration exceeds that during inspiration.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Chamber volume increase is observed in ? cardiomyopathy.
    A. Both a and b are correct.
    B. hypertrophic
    C. a, b, and c are correct.
    D. dilated
    E. restrictive
    D. dilated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Aortic stenosis
    A. left ventricular hypertrophy
    B. left atria/right ventricular hypertrophy
    C. right atrial hypertrophy
    D. left atria hypertrophy
    E. right ventricular hypertrophy
    F. hypertrophy of all chambers
    G. right and left ventricular/left atrial hypertrophy
    A. left ventricular hypertrophy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Tricuspid regurgitation
    A. hypertrophy of all chambers
    B. left ventricular hypertrophy
    C. right and left ventricular/left atrial hypertrophy
    D. right ventricular hypertrophy
    E. left atria hypertrophy
    F. right atrial hypertrophy
    G. left atria/right ventricular hypertrophy
    F. right atrial hypertrophy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Mitral stenosis
    A. hypertrophy of all chambers
    B. left atria/right ventricular hypertrophy
    C. left atria hypertrophy
    D. left ventricular hypertrophy
    E. right ventricular hypertrophy
    F. right atrial hypertrophy
    G. right and left ventricular/left atrial hypertrophy
    B. left atria/right ventricular hypertrophy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Mitral regurgitation
    A. right and left ventricular/left atrial hypertrophy
    B. hypertrophy of all chambers
    C. left atria hypertrophy
    D. right atrial hypertrophy
    E. left atria/right ventricular hypertrophy
    F. left ventricular hypertrophy
    G. right ventricular hypertrophy
    A. right and left ventricular/left atrial hypertrophy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which statement is true regarding rheumatic heart disease? (More than one answer may be correct)
    a. It is caused by staphylococcal infections.
    b. It is caused by hypersensitivity/immunity to streptococci.
    c. It damages the tricuspid valve most often.
    d. It usually damages the mitral valve.
    • b. It is caused by hypersensitivity/immunity to streptococci.
    • d. It usually damages the mitral valve.
  18. Which is not an expected finding in acute rheumatic fever?
    A. elevated ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
    B. elevated ASO titer ( antistreptolysin O)
    C. leukopenia
    D. fever
    C. leukopenia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Bacterial infective endocarditis differs from rheumatic heart disease because of which of the following? (More than one answer may be correct)
    a. Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the heart, endocardium, and valves.
    b. It always follows rheumatic fever.
    c. it may occur following dental or bladder catheterization procedures.
    d. It commonly involves the vena cava valve.
    e. It is caused by a type III hypersensitivity.
    • a. Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the heart, endocardium, and valves.
    • c. it may occur following dental or bladder
  20. Individuals with only left heart failure would exhibit which of the following? (More than one answer may be correct)
    a. hepatomegaly
    b. dyspnea
    c. ankle swelling
    d. pulmonary edema
    e. peripheral edema
    • b. dyspnea
    • d. pulmonary edema
  21. In congestive heart failure, the pump or myocardium itself fails because of which of the following? (More than one answer may be correct)
    a. loss of contractile force of the heart
    b. hypertension
    c. cardiac dysrhythmias
    d. intermittent claudication from occlusive vascular disease
    • a. loss of contractile force of the heart
    • b. hypertension
    • c. cardiac dysrhythmias
  22. Shock is a complex pathophysiologic process involving all of the following except:
    A. decreased blood perfusion to kidneys
    B. acidosis.
    C. anaerobic glycolysis.
    D. hypertension
    E. rapid heart rate.
    D. hypertension
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) begins with an infection that progresses to:
    a.. bacteremia
    b. sepsis.
    c. septic shock.
    d. multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).
    e. All of the above are correct.
    e. All of the above are correct
  24. Which statement is incorrect concerning hypertension?
    A. Malignant hypertension is characterized by a diastolic pressure of over 140 mm Hg.
    B. When left untreated, the major risks include CVAs and cardiac hypertrophy.
    C. More than 90% of cases are of the essential or primary type.
    D. Headache is the most reliable symptom.
    D. Headache is the most reliable symptom.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the emergency room after experiencing shortness of breath, weakness, cardiac dysrhythmias, and chest pain that did not subside after nitroglycerin therapy. Laboratory tests revealed the patient had an elevated ST segment. The most probably diagnosis is:
    A. an acute myocardial infarct.
    B. an attack of unstable angina pectoris.
    C. coronary artery vasospasm.
    D. Prinzmetal angina.
    E. a transient ischemic attack.
    A. an acute myocardial infarct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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