25 Study Guide

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NursyDaisy
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137392
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25 Study Guide
Updated:
2012-04-06 14:47:44
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Pathophysiology
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Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System
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  1. Considering the sequence of structure through which air enters the pulmonary system, the pharynx is to the trachea as the:
    A. bronchioles are to the segmental bronchi.
    B. alveolar ducts are to the respiratory bronchioles.
    C. respiratory bronchioles are to the alveolar ducts.
    D. alveoli are to the alveolar ducts.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    C. respiratory bronchioles are to the alveolar ducts.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The cilia of the bronchial wall:
    A. ingest bacteria.
    B. Both a and c are correct.
    C. trap and remove bacteria.
    D. propel mucus and trapped bacteria toward the oropharynx.
    E. trigger the sneeze reflex.
    D. propel mucus and trapped bacteria toward the oropharynx.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. As the terminal bronchioles are approached:
    A. cartilaginous support increases.
    B. the smooth muscle layer thickens.
    C. the epithelium becomes thicker.
    D. mucus-producing glands increase.
    E. the epithelium becomes thinner.
    E. the epithelium becomes thinner.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The left bronchus:
    A. is shorter and wider than the right.
    B. is symmetrical to the right.
    C. has a course more vertical than that on the right.
    D. has more bronchial wall layers than the right.
    E. is more angled than the right.
    E. is more angled than the right.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The respiratory unit consists of:
    A. bronchiolar arteries and veins.
    B. respiratory bronchioles and alveoli.
    C. cilia.
    D. goblet cells and alveoli.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    B. respiratory bronchioles and alvioli.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Alveoli are excellent gas exchange units because of:
    A. extensive vascularization.
    B. their large surface area.
    C. a very thin epithelial layer.
    D. a, b, and c are correct.
    E. Both b and c are correct.
    D. a, b, and c are correct. (a. their large surface area. b. a very thin epithelial layer. c. extensive vascularization. )
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Surfactant:
    A. facilitates alveolar expansion during inspiration.
    B. produces nutrients for the alveoli.
    C. facilitates O2 exchange.
    D. permits air exchange between alveolar ducts.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    A. facilitates alveolar expansion during inspiration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. During expiration, which relationship is true?
    A. As the lung pressure increases, the number of gas molecules increases.
    B. As the lung volume decreases, the number of gas molecules increases.
    C. As the lung volume decreases, the pressure increases.
    D. As the partial pressure increases, less gas will dissolve in a liquid.
    C. As the lung volume decreases, the pressure increases.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. When the diaphragm and external intercostal contract:
    A. the intrathoracic volume increases.
    B. the intrathoracic volume decreases.
    C. the intrathoracic pressure increases.
    d. None of the above is correct.
    A. the intrathoracic volume increases.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Inspiratory reserve volume
    A. the extra air pushed out during a forced exhalation
    B. taking an extra-deep breath of air just before diving
    C. amount of air remaining in lungs after a forced expiration
    D. includes sum of tidal, expiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve volumes
    B. taking an extra-deep breath of air just before diving
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Vital capacity
    A. taking an extra-deep breath of air just before diving
    B. amount of air remaining in lungs after a forced expiration
    C. includes sum of tidal, expiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve volumes
    D. the extra air pushed out during a forced exhalation
    C. includes sum of tidal, expiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve volumes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Oxygen diffusion from the alveolus to the alveolar capillary occurs because:
    A. the PaO2 is less in the capillary than in the alveolus.
    B. Oxygen diffuses faster than CO2.
    C. the Pao2 is greater in the atmosphere than in the arterial blood.
    D. the PaO2 is higher in the capillary than in the alveolus.
    A. the PaO2 is less in the capillary than in the alveolus.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. A shift to the right in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve:
    A. Both a and b are correct.
    B. improves oxygen release and increases oxygen movement into the cells.
    C. prevents oxygen release at the cellular level.
    D. causes oxygen to bind tighter to hemoglobin.
    e. None of the above is correct.
    B. improves oxygen release and increases oxygen movement into the cells.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. In which sequence does PaO2 progressively decrease?
    A. atmospheric air, aortic blood, body tissues
    B. body tissues, arterial blood, alveolar air
    C. body tissues, alveolar air, arterial blood
    D. blood in aorta, atmospheric air, body tissues
    A. atmospheric air, aortic blood, body tissues
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Most O2 is carried in the blood ?, most CO2 is carried in the blood ?.
    A. bound to hemoglobin; bound to albumin
    B. bound to hemoglobin; associated with bicarbonate/carbonic acid
    C. combined with albumin; associated with carbonic acid and hemoglobin
    D. dissolved in plasma; associated with salt or an acid
    B. bound to hemoglobin; associated with bicarbonate/carbonic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Alveoli are well-suited for diffusion of respiratory gases because:
    A. they contain four thick layers, preventing air leakage.
    B. they contain surfactant, which helps prevent alveolar collapse.
    C. they are small and thus have a small total surface area.
    D. vascularization is minimal, allowing greater air circulation.
    B. they contain surfactant, which helps prevent alveolar collapse.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which ordinarily brings about the greatest increase in the rate of respiration?
    A. increased arterial pH
    B. a sudden rise in blood pressure
    C. increased O2
    D. excess carbon dioxide
    D. excess carbon dioxide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Given that the oxygen content of blood equals 1.34 ml of O2 per gram of hemoglobin times the arterial oxygen saturation percentage, if hemoglobin concentration is 15 g/dl and arterial saturation is 98%, what is the arterial oxygen content?
    A. 19.7 ml/dl of blood
    B. 14.7 ml/dl of blood
    C. 13.2 ml/dl of blood
    d. None of the above is correct.
    A. 19.7 ml/dl of blood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The major muscle(s) of inspiration is (are) the:
    A. Both a and c are correct.
    B. internal intercostals.
    C. external intercostals.
    D. diaphragm.
    E. sternocleidomastoid.
    A. Both a and c are correct. (a. diaphragm. c. external intercostals.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Stretch receptors:
    a. are sensitive to volume changes in the lung.
    b. are located in airway smooth muscles.
    c. decrease ventilatory rate when stimulated.
    d. prevent lung overinflation when stimulated.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    e. All of the above are correct.
  21. Which of the following increases the respiratory rate?
    A. increased PaCO2, decreased pH, decreased PaO2
    B. decreased PaCO2, decreased pH, decreased PaO2
    C. decreased PaCO2, decreased pH, increased PaO2
    D. increased PaCO2, increased pH, decreased PaO2
    A. increased PaCO2, decreased pH, decreased PaO2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) of neurons:
    A. modifies the rhythm of respiration.
    B. is active when increased ventilation is required.
    C. sets the automatic rhythm of respiration.
    d. None of the above is correct.
    C. sets the automatic rhythm of respiration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. PaCO2 of 40 mm Hg
    a. arterial blood
    b. mixed venous blood
    a. arterial blood
  24. Oxygen saturation of 70%
    a. arterial blood
    b. mixed venous blood
    b. mixed venous blood
  25. Oxygen content of blood of 19 to 20 ml/dl
    a. arterial blood
    b. mixed venous blood
    a. arterial blood

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