26 Study Guide

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Author:
NursyDaisy
ID:
137393
Filename:
26 Study Guide
Updated:
2012-04-06 14:40:58
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Pathophysiology
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Description:
Alterations of Pulmonary Function
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  1. Kussmaul respiration
    A. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    B. decreased arterial oxygenation
    C. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    D. pleural space pus
    E. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    F. fractured ribs or sternum
    G. alveolar collapse
    H. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    I. circumscribed area of suppuration
    J. pleural space air
    K. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    L. coughing blood or blood secretions
    M. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    C. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Hemoptysis
    A. coughing blood or blood secretions
    B. fractured ribs or sternum
    C. decreased arterial oxygenation
    D. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    E. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    F. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    G. pleural space pus
    H. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    I. pleural space air
    J. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    K. alveolar collapse
    L. circumscribed area of suppuration
    M. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    A. coughing blood or blood secretions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Cyanosis
    A. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    B. alveolar collapse
    C. circumscribed area of suppuration
    D. pleural space air
    E. pleural space pus
    F. decreased arterial oxygenation
    G. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    H. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    I. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    J. coughing blood or blood secretions
    K. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    L. fractured ribs or sternum
    M. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    F. decreased arterial oxygenation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    A. circumscribed area of suppuration
    B. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    C. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    D. decreased arterial oxygenation
    E. alveolar collapse
    F. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    G. pleural space air
    H. fractured ribs or sternum
    I. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    J. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    K. pleural space pus
    L. coughing blood or blood secretions
    M. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    I. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Atelectasis
    A. pleural space air
    B. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    C. alveolar collapse
    D. decreased arterial oxygenation
    E. circumscribed area of suppuration
    F. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    G. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    H. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    I. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    J. coughing blood or blood secretions
    K. fractured ribs or sternum
    L. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    M. pleural space pus
    C. alveolar collapse
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Bronchiectasis
    A. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    B. pleural space pus
    C. alveolar collapse
    D. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    E. decreased arterial oxygenation
    F. circumscribed area of suppuration
    G. fractured ribs or sternum
    H. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    I. pleural space air
    J. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    K. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    L. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    M. coughing blood or blood secretions
    J. abnormal dilation of brocnhi
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Pneumoconiosis
    A. pleural space pus
    B. pleural space air
    C. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    D. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    E. alveolar collapse
    F. circumscribed area of suppuration
    G. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    H. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    I. fractured ribs or sternum
    J. decreased arterial oxygenation
    K. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    L. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    M. coughing blood or blood secretions
    D. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Flail chest
    A. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    B. circumscribed area of suppuration
    C. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    D. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    E. pleural space pus
    F. coughing blood or blood secretions
    G. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    H. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    I. pleural space air
    J. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    K. alveolar collapse
    L. decreased arterial oxygenation
    M. fractured ribs or sternum
    M. fractured ribs or sternum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Pneumothorax
    A. circumscribed area of suppuration
    B. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    C. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    D. pleural space air
    E. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    F. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    G. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    H. coughing blood or blood secretions
    I. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    J. pleural space pus
    K. decreased arterial oxygenation
    L. fractured ribs or sternum
    M. alveolar collapse
    D. pleural space air
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Abscess
    A. decreased arterial oxygenation
    B. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
    C. abnormal dilation of bronchi
    D. inadequate alveolar ventilation
    E. pleural space air
    F. alveolar collapse
    G. coughing blood or blood secretions
    H. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
    I. ventilation exceeding metabolic demand
    J. fractured ribs or sternum
    K. circumscribed area of suppuration
    L. fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs
    M. pleural space pus
    K. circumscribed area of suppuration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. High altitudes may produce hypoxemia by:
    A. hypoventilation.
    B. decreased oxygen inspiration.
    C. right-to-left shunts.
    D. diffusion and abnormalities
    e. All of the above are correct.
    B. decreased oxygen inspiration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. In ARDS, increased alveolocapillary membrane permeability is caused by:
    A. tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
    B. a, b, and c are correct.
    C. platelet-activating factor (PAF).
    D. Both a and c are correct.
    E. oxygen-free radicals.
    B. a, b, and c are correct. (a. platelet-activating factor (PAF). b. oxygen free radicals. c. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)).
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Type II pneumocyte damage causes:
    A. exudation of fluid from capillaries into interstitium.
    B. chemotaxis for neutrophils.
    C. increased alveolocapillary permeability.
    D. decreased surfactant production.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    D. decreased surfactant production.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Pulmonary edema may be caused by abnormal:
    A. capillary hydrostatic pressure.
    B. capillary permeability.
    C. a, b, and c are correct.
    D. capillary oncotic pressure.
    E. Both a and c are correct.
    C. a, b, and c are correct. (a. capillary hydrostatic pressure. b. capillary oncotic pressure. c. capillary permeability.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. In bronchial asthma:
    A. bronchial muscles relax.
    B. bronchial muscles contract.
    C. imbalances with the CNS develop.
    D. mucous secretions decrease.
    B. bronchial muscles relax.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Asthma is precipitated by which of the following inflammatory mediators? (More than one answer may be correct)
    a. histamine
    b. prostaglandins
    c. leukotrienes
    d. neutrophilic infiltration
    • a. histamine
    • b. prostaglandins
    • c. leukotrienes
    • d. neutrophilic infiltration
  17. In emphysema:
    a. there is increased area for gaseous exchange.
    b. there are prolonged inspirations.
    c. the bronchioles are primarily involved.
    d. there is increased diaphragm movement.
    e. None of the above is correct.
    e. None of the above is correct.
  18. Chronic bronchitis (More than one answer may be correct):
    a. is caused by lack of surfactant.
    b. is caused by air pollutants.
    c. exhibits a productive cough.
    d. causes collapsed alveoli.
    • b. is caused by air pollutants.
    • c. exhibits a productive cough.
  19. Which is inconsistent with pneumonia?
    A. involves only interstitial lung tissue
    B. may be caused by mycoplasmas.
    C. can be lobar pneumonia or bronchopneumonia
    D. chest pain, cough, and rales
    A. involves only interstitial lung tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Tuberculosis (More than one answer may be correct):
    a. is caused by an aerobic bacillus.
    b. may affect other organs.
    c. involves a type III hypersensitivity.
    d. antibodies may be detected by a skin test.
    • a. is caused by an aerobic bacillus.
    • b. may affect other organs.
    • d. antibodies may be detected by a skin test.
  21. Pulmonary emboli usually (more than one answer may be correct):
    a. obstruct blood supply to lung parenchyma.
    b. originate from thrombi in the legs.
    c. occlude pulmonary vein branches.
    d. occlude pulmonary artery branches.
    • a. obstruct blood supply to lung parenchyma.
    • b. originate from thrombi in the legs.
    • d. occlude pulmonary artery branches
  22. Pulmonary hypertension:
    A. occurs when left arterial pressure is elevated.
    B. a, b, and c are correct.
    C. shows right ventricular hypertrophy on an electrocardiogram.
    D. Both a and c are correct.
    E. involves deep vein thrombosis.
    D. Bot a and c are correct. (a. occurs when left arterial pressure is elevated. c. shows right ventricular hypertrophy on an electrocardiogram.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Cor pulmonale:
    A. Both b and c are correct.
    B. is right heart failure.
    C. is manifested by altered tricuspid and pulmonic valve sounds.
    D. occurs in response to long-standing pulmonary hypertension.
    E. a, b, and c are correct.
    E. a, b, and c are correct. (a. occurs in response to long-standing pulmonary hypertension. b. is right heart failure. c. is manifested by altered tricuspid and pulmonic valve sounds. )
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. A lung cancer characterized by many anaplastic figures and the production of hormones is most likely:
    A. bronchial adenoma.
    B. squamous cell carcinoma.
    C. small cell carcinoma.
    D. large cell carcinoma.
    E. adenocarcinoma.
    C. small cell carcinoma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The metastasis of lung squamous cell carcinoma is:
    A. very early and widespread.
    B. early and widespread.
    C. early.
    D. late.
    E. never seen.
    D. late.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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