28 Study Guide

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NursyDaisy
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137395
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28 Study Guide
Updated:
2012-04-06 14:26:07
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Pathophysiology
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Description:
Structure and Function of the Renal and Urologic Systems
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  1. Which sequence of structures does urine pass through as it leaves the body?
    1. ureter
    2. renal pelvis
    3. urinary bladder
    4. major calyx
    5. urethra
    6. minor calyx
    A. 6, 4, 2, 5, 3, 1
    B. 6, 4, 2, 1, 3, 5
    C. 2, 6, 4, 5, 3, 1
    D. 4, 2, 6, 1, 3, 5
    E. 2, 4, 6, 1, 3, 5
    B. 6, 4, 2, 1, 3, 5
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The functional unit of the human kidney is the:
    A. nephron.
    B. miner calyx.
    C. collecting tubule (duct).
    D. pyramid
    E. major calyx.
    A. nephron.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. One unique feature of the renal blood circulation is that:
    A. blood flows from arterioles into venules.
    B. there are two sets of capillaries.
    C. blood flows from venules into arterioles.
    D. there is a double set of venules.
    B. there are two sets of capillaries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which has the opposite effect on urine production from the others?
    A. decreased solutes in blood
    B. decreased blood pressure
    C. increased ambient temperature
    D. reduced water consumption
    E. dehydration
    A. decreased solutes in blood.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The glomerular filtration rate is regulated by the:
    a. autonomic nervous system.
    b. renin-angiotensin system.
    c. atrial natriuretic factor.
    d. All of the above are correct.
    e. Both a and b are correct.
    d. All of the above are correct.
  6. If the following hypothetical conditions exist in the nephron, what would be the net (effective) filtration pressure?
    Glomerular blood hydrostatic = 80 mm Hg
    Glomerular blood osmotic = 20 mm Hg
    Capsular hydrostatic = 30 mm Hg
    A. 20 mm Hg
    B. 10 mm Hg
    C. 30 mm Hg
    D. 40 mm Hg
    C. 30 mm Hg
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The capillaries of the glomerulus differ from other capillary networks in the body because they:
    A. have a larger area of anastomosis.
    B. branch from and drain into arterioles.
    C. lack endothelium.
    D. force filtrate from the blood.
    B. branch from and drain into arterioles.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which is not a function of the kidney?
    A. water volume control
    B. blood pressure control
    C. conversion of vitamin D to an active form
    D. urine storage
    D. urine storage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Potassium is secreted by the ? and reabsorbed by the ?.
    A. loop of Henle; collecting ducts
    B. collecting ducts, loop of Henle
    C. proximal convoluted tubule; distal convoluted tubule
    D. distal convoluted tubule; proximal convoluted tubule
    E. Bowman capsule; loop of Henle
    D. distal convoluted tubule; proximal convoluted tubule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. ADH causes water to:
    A. a, b, and c are correct.
    B. return to the systemic circulation.
    C. diffuse into the ascending limb of the vasa recta.
    D. be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule.
    E. Both a and b are correct.
    E. Both a and b are correct. (a. diffuse into the ascending limb of the vasa recta. b. return to the systemic circulation.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Water reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate initially enters the:
    A. Bowman's capsule.
    B. glomerulus.
    C. afferent arterioles.
    D. vasa recta.
    E. efferent arterioles.
    D. vasa recta.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Plasma contains a much greater concentration of ? than the glomerular filtrate.
    A. sodium
    B. urea
    C. creatinine
    D. protein
    D. protein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. An increase in water permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collection duct is the result of:
    A. a decrease in blood plasma.
    B. an increase in the production of ADH.
    C. a decrease in the production of ADH.
    D. an increase in water content within tubular cells.
    e. None of the above is correct.
    B. an increase in the production of ADH.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The descending loop of the nephron allows:
    A. water reabsorption.
    B. sodium secretion.
    C. potassium secretion.
    D. hydrogen ion secretion.
    A. water reabsorption.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which most accurately describes the pressures affecting net glomerular filtration?
    A. Blood hydrostatic opposes capsular hydrostatic and blood oncotic.
    B. Blood osmotic opposes capsular hydrostatic and blood hydrostatic.
    C. Capsular hydrostatic opposes blood osmotic and blood hydrostatic.
    d. None of the above is correct.
    A. Blood hydrostatic opposes capsular hydrostatic and blood oncotic.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Tubular secretion of urea is accomplished in the:
    A. urethra.
    B. glomerulus.
    C. distal convoluted tubule.
    D. renal pelvis.
    e. None of the above is correct.
    C. distal convoluted tubule.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion differ in that:
    A. secretion adds materials to the blood; reabsorption removes materials from the blood.
    B. secretion is a passive process; reabsorption is an active transport process.
    C. reabsorption tends to increase urine volume; secreting tends to decrease urine volume.
    D. secretion adds material to the filtrate; reabsorption removes materials from the filtrate.
    D. secretion adds material to the filtrate; reabsorption removes materials from the filtrate.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The kidneys (more than one answer may be correct):
    a. conserve H+.
    b. conserve NH4+.
    c. eliminate H+.
    d. eliminate NH4+.
    e. conserve
    • c. eliminate H+.
    • d. eliminate NH4+.
    • e. conserve.
  19. If a small person excretes about 1 liter of urine during a 24-hour period, estimate the total amount of glomerular filtrate formed.
    A. 18 liters
    B. 100 liters
    C. 4 liters
    D. 10 liters
    B. 100 liters
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which should not appear in the glomerular filtrate (in an significant quantity) just after the process of glomerular filtration has been accomplished?
    A. urea
    B. glucose
    C. Both a and b are correct.
    D. protein
    D. protein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. The loop of Henle is to vasa recta as convoluted tubules are to:
    A. afferent arterioles.
    B. efferent arterioles.
    C. renal arteries.
    D. peritubulur capillaries.
    D. peritubulur capillaries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The two "currents" used in the countercurrent exchanges system are the:
    A. proximal and distal tubules.
    B. glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman) capsule.
    C. ascending and descending limbs.
    D. afferent and efferent arterioles.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    C. ascending and descending limbs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The countercurrent exchange system:
    A. facilitates osmosis.
    B. concentrates chloride in the renal cortex.
    C. prevents water reabsorption from the collecting duct.
    D. concentrates sodium in the renal cortex.
    e. None of the above is correct.
    A. facilitates osmosis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF):
    A. is produced by the kidney.
    B. decreases urine output.
    C. increases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion.
    D. increases urine output.
    D. increases urine output.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. A waste product of protein metabolism is:
    A. trypsin.
    B. urea.
    C. pepsinogen.
    D. urine
    E. amino acid.
    B. urea.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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