33 Study Guide

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NursyDaisy
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137400
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33 Study Guide
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2012-04-06 13:42:35
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Pathophysiology
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Structure and Function of the Digestive System
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  1. The muscularis of the gastrointestinal tract is:
    A. skeletal muscle throughout the tract, particularly in the esophagus and large intestine.
    B. composed principally of keratinized epithelium.
    C. composed of circular fibers and longitudinal fibers.
    D. the layer that contains the blood capillaries for the entire wall of the tract.
    C. composed of circular fibers and longitudinal fibers.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The digestive functions performed by the saliva and salivary amylase, respectively, are:
    A. moistening and protein digestion.
    B. deglutition and fat digestion.
    C. peristalsis and polysaccharide digestion.
    D. lubrication and carbohydrate digestion.
    D. lubrication and carbohydrate digestion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The nervous pathway involved in salivary secretion requires stimulation of:
    A. pressoreceptors in blood vessels and autonomic impulses to salivary glands.
    B. taste receptors, sensory impulses, and somatic motor impulses to salivary glands.
    C. receptors in the taste buds and somatic motor impulses to salivary glands.
    D. receptors in the mouth, sensory impulses, and parasympathetic impulses to salivary glands.
    D. receptors in the mouth, sensory impulses, and parasympathetic impulses to salivary glands.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Food would pass rapidly from the stomach into the duodenum if it were not for the:
    A. pyloric sphincter.
    B. epiglottis.
    C. rugae.
    D. cardiac sphincter.
    E. fundus.
    A. pyloric sphincter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The secretion of gastric juice:
    A. occurs in three phases: cephalic, gastric, and intestinal.
    B. is entirely under the control of the hormone gastrin.
    C. is stimulated by the presence of saliva in the stomach.
    D. is entirely under the control of the hormone enterogastrone.
    E. occurs only when swallowed food comes in contact with the stomach.
    A. occurs in three phases: cephalic, gastric, and intestinal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. During nervous control of gastric secretion, the gastric glands secrete before food enters the stomach. This stimulus to the glands comes from:
    A. motor impulses from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.
    B. parasympathetic impulses over the vagus nerve.
    C. impulses over somatic nerves from the hypothalamus.
    D. gastrin.
    B. parasympathetic impulses over the vagus nerve.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Pepsinogen:
    a. must be activated by HCl.
    b. is secreted by the chief cells.
    c. is a precursor to pepsin.
    d. All of the above are correct.
    d. All of the above are correct.
  8. Beginning at the lumen of the tube, the sequence of layers of the gastrointestinal tract is:
    A. serosa, muscularis, mucosa, submucosa.
    B. submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis.
    C. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.
    D. submucosa, mucosa, muscularis, skeletal muscle.
    C. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Normally, when chyme leaves the stomach:
    A. the amount of inorganic salts have been increased by the action of hydrochloric acid.
    B. the nutrients are ready for absorption into the blood.
    C. its pH is neutral.
    D. the proteins have been partly digested into polypeptides.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    D. the proteins have been partly digested into polypeptides.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which layer of the small intestine includes microvilli?
    A. submucosa
    B. muscularis
    C. serosa
    D. mucosa
    D. mucosa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which is not an example of mechanical digestion?
    A. churning and mixing of food in the stomach
    B. conversion of protein molecules into amino acids
    C. chewing
    D. peristalsis and mastication
    B. conversion of protein molecules into amino acids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Pancreatic juice is to trypsin as gastric juice is to:
    A. mucin.
    B. intrinsic factor.
    C. salivary amylase.
    D. pepsin.
    D. pepsin.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which part of the small intestine is most distal from the pylorus?
    A. cardiac sphincter
    B. jejunum
    C. pyloric sphincter
    D. duodenum
    E. common bile duct
    B. jejunum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The pancreas:
    A. is a gland with its duct ultimately opening into the duodenum.
    B. secretes all of its products directly into the bloodstream.
    C. lies mostly on the left side of abdominal cavity, anterior to the stomach and spleen.
    D. contains cells with endocrine function for the determination of secondary sex characteristics.
    E. is classified as a digestive exocrine gland and does not have endocrine functions.
    A. is a gland with its duct ultimately opening into the duodenum.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The chief role played by the pancreas in digestion is to:
    A. assist in absorbing the digested foods.
    B. churn the food and bring it into contact with digestive enzymes.
    C. secrete enzymes, which digest food in the small intestine.
    D. secrete insulin and glucagon.
    C. secrete enzymes, which digest food in the small intestine.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Among the structural features of the small intestine are villi, microvilli, and circular folds. Their function is to:
    A. liberate digestive enzymes.
    B. increase the surface area for absorption.
    C. liberate hormones.
    D. promotes peristalsis.
    B. increase the surface area for absorption.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The fate of carbohydrates in the small intestine is:
    A. hydrolysis to amino acids.
    B. conversion to glycerol and fatty acids.
    C. conversion to simple sugars by the activity of trypsin.
    D. digestion to monosaccharides.
    D. digestion to monosaccharides.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The absorptive fate of the end products of digestion may be summarized by which of the following?
    A. amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed into blood capillaries; most fatty acids are absorbed into lymph.
    B. fatty acids are absorbed into blood capillaries; glycerol, glucose, and amino acids are absorbed into lymph.
    C. most fatty acids are absorbed into the blood; glucose and amino acids are absorbed into the lymphatic system.
    D. amino acids and fatty acids are absorbed into the lymph capillaries; glycerol and glucose are absorbed into the blood capillaries.
    A. amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed into blood capillaries; most fatty acids are absorbed into lymph.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. A lobule of the liver contains a centrally located:
    A. hepatic sinus with radiating sinusoids.
    B. vein with radiating hepatocytes and sinusoids.
    C. hepatic duct with radiating Kupffer cells and cords of hepatic cells.
    D. arteriole with radiating capillaries and Kupffer cells.
    B. vein with radiating hepatocytes and sinusoids.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. An obstruction of the common bile duct would cause blockage of bile coming from:
    A. both the liver and the gallbladder.
    B. the liver but not from the gallbladder.
    C. the pancreatic duct but not from the gallbladder.
    D. the gallbladder.
    A. both the liver and the gallbladder.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. The human adult liver does not:
    A. store glycogen.
    B. produce blood coagulation proteins.
    C. convert ammonia to urea.
    D. produce erythrocytes.
    D. produce erythrocytes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The chyme that enters the large intestine is converted to feces by activity of:
    A. the microvilli, villi, and circular muscles.
    B. bacteria and water reabsorption.
    C. specific mucosal enzymes.
    D. gastric and duodenal hormones.
    B. bacteria and water reabsorption.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Splanchnic organs
    A. act(s) as blood reservoir for heart and lungs
    B. activate(s) pepsinogen
    C. stimulate(s) gallbladder to eject bile.
    D. stimulate(s) liver to secrete bile
    E. trap(s) bacteria
    F. increase(s) gastrointestinal mobility
    A. act(s) as blood reservoir for heart and lungs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Kupffer cells
    A. activate(s) pepsinogen
    B. stimulate(s) liver to secrete bile
    C. stimulate(s) gallbladder to eject bile.
    D. trap(s) bacteria
    E. act(s) as blood reservoir for heart and lungs
    F. increase(s) gastrointestinal mobility
    D. trap(s) bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Cholecystokinin
    A. stimulate(s) liver to secrete bile
    B. increase(s) gastrointestinal mobility
    C. act(s) as blood reservoir for heart and lungs
    D. stimulate(s) gallbladder to eject bile.
    E. activate(s) pepsinogen
    F. trap(s) bacteria
    D. stimulate(s) gallbladder to eject bile.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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