37 Study Guide

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Author:
NursyDaisy
ID:
137404
Filename:
37 Study Guide
Updated:
2012-04-06 13:06:51
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Pathophysiology
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Description:
Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function
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  1. In a complete fracture:
    A. the surface opposite the break is intact.
    B. separation of ligaments exists.
    C. posttraumatic infection is always present.
    D. more than two bone fragments are present.
    E. the fracture crosses or involves the entire width or thickness of the bone.
    E. the fracture crosses or involves the entire width or thickness of the bone.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. In an oblique fracture, the energy or force is:
    A. twisting with the distal part unable to move.
    B. directly to the distal fragment.
    C. compressive and at an angle
    D. directly to an already weakened bone.
    C. compressive and at an angle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which is a definite sign of a fracture?
    A. unnatural alignment
    B. muscle spasm
    C. abrasion
    D. shock
    e. All of the above are correct.
    A. unnatural alignment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Subluxation
    A. a ligament tear
    B. articular cartilages lose contact entirely
    C. articular cartilages are partially separated
    D. complete separation of a tendon or a ligament
    C. articular cartilages are partially separated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Sprain
    A. articular cartilages lose contact entirely
    B. articular cartilages are partially separated
    C. a ligament tear
    D. complete separation of a tendon or a ligament
    C. a ligament tear
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Secondary muscular dysfunctions:
    A. Both b and c are correct.
    B. result from failure of calcium pump.
    C. are related to the muscle itself.
    D. involve large compartments of hemorrhage.
    E. can display contractures.
    A. Both b and c are correct. (b. can display contractures. c. result from failure of calcium pump.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The most common cause of osteomyelitis is:
    A. hematogenous spread of infection.
    B. rheumatoid disease.
    C. direct contamination of an open wound.
    D. deficiency of calcium.
    E. deficiency of vitamin D.
    C. direct contamination of an open wound.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Osteoporosis pathogenesis involves:
    A. impaired synthesis of bone organic matrix.
    B. inadequate mineralization.
    C. formation of sclerotic bone.
    D. alteration in the OPG/RANKL/RANK system.
    e. None of the above is correct.
    D. alteration in the OPG/RANKL/RANK system.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Osteomalacia causes:
    a. loss of bone matrix.
    b. inadequate mineralization.
    c. radiolucency.
    d. All of the above are correct.
    e. Both b and c are correct.
    e. Both b and c are correct. (b. inadequate mineralization. c. radiolucency.)
  10. Bone tumors may originate from all of the following except:
    A. epithelial tissue.
    B. cartilage.
    C. vascular tissue.
    D. mesoderm.
    E. fibrous tissue.
    A. epithelial tissue.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. In benign bone tumors, there is:
    A. a moth-eaten pattern of bone destruction.
    B. a uniform and well-defined lytic area.
    C. abnormal bone merging with surrounding normal bone tissue.
    D. an area of partially destroyed bone adjacent to completely lyric areas.
    B. a uniform and well-defined lytic area.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. An osteosarcoma is a(n):
    A. collagenic, malignant bone tumor.
    B. osteogenic, malignant tumor.
    C. myelogenic, benign tumor.
    D. osteogenic, benign bone tumor.
    E. myelogenic, malignant tumor.
    B. osteogenic, malignant tumor.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. A major symptom of bone cancer is a:
    A. lack of sensation.
    B. general swelling over a bone.
    C. faltering gait.
    D. persistent pain that worsens at night.
    E. coolness over a bone.
    D. persistent pain that worsens at night.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Giant cell tumors:
    A. have high recurrence rates.
    B. are collagenic tumors.
    C. are located in the diaphysis of a long bone.
    D. have extensive osteoblastic activity.
    E. are multifocal.
    A. have high recurrence rates.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Myeloma:
    A. infiltrates the bone marrow.
    B. Both a and c are correct.
    C. is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells.
    D. a, b, and c are correct.
    E. has a poor prognosis.
    D. a, b, and c are correct. (a. is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells. b. has a poor prognosis. c. infiltrates the bone marrow.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Rhuematoid arthritis begins with:
    A. destruction of the joint capsule.
    B. inflammation of ligaments.
    C. destruction of the articular cartilage.
    D. destruction of the synovial membrane and subsynovial tissue.
    E. softening of the articular cartilage.
    D. destruction of the synovial membrane and subsynovial tissue.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The causes of osteoarthritis include which of the following? (More than one answer may be correct)
    a. enzymatic breakdown
    b. proteoglycan destruction
    c. rheumatoid factor
    d. circulating immune complexes
    e. infections
    • a. enzymatic breakdown
    • b. proteoglycan destruction
  18. Ankylosing spondylitis (more than one answer may be correct):
    a. is a systemic immune inflammatory disease.
    b. is characterized by stiffening or fusion of the spine.
    c. causes instability of synovial joints.
    d. begins with inflammation of fibrocartilage.
    e. is manifested early be low back pain and stiffness.
    • a. is a systemic immune inflammatory disease.
    • b. is characterized by stiffening or fusion of the spine.
    • d. begins with inflammation of fibrocartilage.
    • e. is manifested early be low back pain and stiffness.
  19. In gout:
    a. the pathogenesis is formation of monosodium urate crystals in joints and tissues.
    b. purine metabolism is altered.
    c. affected individuals likely have an inherited enzyme defect.
    d. the hyperuricemia can be the result of acquired chronic disease or a drug.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    e. All of the above are correct.
  20. A muscle contracture is:
    A. likely caused by increased activity in the reticular activating system and the gamma loop in the muscle fiber.
    B. often helped by relaxation training and biofeedback.
    C. a consequence of reduced muscle protein synthesis.
    D. muscle shortening possibly because of CNS injury.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    D. muscle shortening possibly because of CNS injury.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Myotonia is all of the following except:
    A. prolonged depolarization of the muscle membrane.
    B. unresponsiveness to neural stimulation.
    C. progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle.
    D. mostly inherited.
    E. delayed relaxation after voluntary muscle contractions.
    B. unresponsiveness to neural stimulation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. McArdle disease
    A. hyperparathyroidism
    B. inability to catabolize glycogen
    C. hypothyroidism
    D. accumulation of glycogen in lysosomes
    E. immune system abnormality
    B. inability to catabolize glycogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Acid maltase deficiency
    A. hypothyroidism
    B. hyperparathyroidism
    C. accumulation of glycogen in lysosomes
    D. immune system abnormality
    E. inability to catabolize glycogen
    C. accumulation of glycogen in lysosomes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Polymyositis
    A. hyperparathyroidism
    B. inability to catabolize glycogen
    C. accumulation of glycogen in lysosomes
    D. hypothyroidism
    E. immune system abnormality
    E. immune system abnormality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Rhabdomyosarcomas have:
    a. a poor prognosis.
    b. aggressive invasion.
    c. early, widespread dissemination.
    d. pleomorphic types.
    e. All of the above are correct.
    e. All of the above are correct.

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