MedChem Quiz V

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MedChem Quiz V
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2012-02-27 23:14:05
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MedChem Quiz
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MEdChem Quiz V
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  1. Morphine
    • Isolated from Papaver somniferum
    • Narcotic analgesic
  2. Quinine
    • Isolated from Cinchona spp (bark)
    • antimalarial
    • (S,S) diasteromer: Anti-arrhythmic
  3. Vinblastine
    • Isolated from Cantharanthus roseus
    • Anticancer
  4. Atropine
    • Isolated from Atropa Belladonna
    • Anticholinergic agents
    • Abelladonna alkaloid
  5. Digitoxin
    • Isolateed from digitalis spp (foxglove)
    • Inotropic agent-strengthens heart muscle contractions
    • Cardiac glycoside
  6. Taxol
    • Paclitaxel
    • Produced by fermentation and semisynthetically
    • Anticancer
  7. Etoposide
    • Isolated from Podophyllum pelatum
    • Anticancer
    • Spindle inhibitor
  8. colchicine
    • Isolated from colchicum autamnale
    • Gout
    • Anti inflamatory spindle inhibitor
    • Given following cardiac surgery
  9. Acetyl salicylcic acid
    • Isolated from Salix alba
    • Anagesic
    • Willow bark
    • Inhibits cycloxygenase: anti platelat drug
  10. Mevalonic acid pathway
    • 3 acetic acid converted into hydroxymethylglutaric acid tehn HMG-CoA reductase converts into Mevalonic acid, then ATP is used to convert into Mevalonic acid 5-pyrophosphate
    • The pathway of cholesterol
    • If HMG CoA reducatse is inhibited everything after in the pathway is inhibited
  11. Flavonid
    • Natural products
    • Anti-oxidants
  12. Digoxigenin
    • An Aglycone
    • Converted to Digoxin
    • Sugar derivative
  13. Nicotine
    Contains a pyridine
  14. Cocaine
    Contains a Tropane
  15. Caffeine
    Contains a purine
  16. Strychnine
    COntains a indole
  17. Sorbitol
    • Food, cosmetic and pharmceutical sweetner
    • Comes from the open chain of Sorbitol
  18. Osmitrol
    • Mannitol
    • An osmotic diuretic that increases the osmotic gradient in the kidney and also a excipient
    • Emergency diuretic make you pee like crazy
  19. Dextrose
    • D-Glucose (mixture of alpha and beta anomers)
    • Obtained by hydrolysis of starch
    • fluid and nutrient replenisher
  20. Calcium gluconate USP
    Calcium replenisher
  21. Ferrous Gluconate
    • Iron supplement
    • Ferrous salt glucurgonic acid
  22. Glucurone
    • D-glucuronic ACid
    • Lactone version
    • Useful for certain arthritic conditions
  23. Fructose USP
    Fluid replenisher and nutrient
  24. Lactose NF
    • Pharmaceutical aid used for tabet and capsule diluent
    • Milk SUgar
    • Galactose and GLucose bonded together
  25. Sucrose NF
    • Pharmaceutical aid for weetening and tablet excipient
    • Cane sugar, BEat sugar
    • A disaccharide that yields one D-glucose and one D-Fructose on hydrolysis
  26. Dextrins
    • Varible molecular weight polysaccharides obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch
    • Extensively used as carbohydrate sources in infant and adult invalid formulas
  27. Maltose
    Malt sugar, obtained by enzymatic digestion of starch to a disaccharide of d-glucose
  28. Xylose USP
    Used as a diagnostic aid to test intestinal capacity to detch celiac disease
  29. Starch NF
    • Isolated from corn and is high molecular weight carbohydrate
    • Amylose
    • Amylopectin
  30. Cellulose
    • A polysaccharide that utilizes beta1,4 glycodici linkage to hook together 100 to 200 beta d molecules
    • found in wood
    • Humans cannot digest
  31. Heparin Sodium
    • Anticoaglulant for ue by IV administration to prevent thrombosis
    • Primarily mechanism involves serine protease clotting factors and the serine protease inhibitor of Antithrombin III
  32. Low molecular weight heparin products
    • Ardeparine Sodium: Normiflo
    • dalteparin Sodium: Fragmin
    • Enoxparin Sodium: Lovenox
    • danaparoid Soadium: Orgaran
    • Alpha glucosidase INhibitors
    • Acarvose-Precose
    • Inhibits the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis od dextrin carbohydrates in the intestinal tract thereby delaying their digestion
  33. Fat soluble vitamins
    • ADEK
    • Toxicity with this class can occur due to accumulation in fatty tissues
  34. Vitamin A
    • Retinol
    • PLay a significant role in visual processes bone growth, reproduction, embryonic develop,ent, protein synthesis, sperm production, growth of epithelial tissues
    • Provitamin carotenoids
    • Passive diffusion enhanced by fatty foods
    • Deficiencies leads to degeneration of mucous membranes and leads to nyctalopia (night blindness)
    • Osteoblast and osteclasts are regulated
  35. Retin-A
    • Vitamin A product
    • Tretinoin
    • Topical treatment of acne in a cream, initally acne gets worse but improves over 3 to 4 weeks with skin peeeling
    • USE SUN SCREEN
    • MOA: Decreases adhension corneocytes, increase proliferation of follicular epithelium, makes skin turn over quickly
    • Also used for APL(ACute Promyelocytic Leukemia)
  36. Accutane
    • Vitamin A
    • Isotretinoin USP
    • Used for the treatment for severe acne as capsule dose form
    • MOA:Inhibits sebaceous gland function and follicular function decreasing sebum production and gland size and differentiation
    • TEtratogenic
  37. Tegison
    • Vitamin A
    • Etretinate
    • Used for the tratment of severe recalcitrant psoriasis
    • Long term storage in adipose tissue
    • Can stilbe detected up to 1 year after discontinuation
    • TETratogenic
  38. Rocaltrol, Calcijex
    • Active form of VItamin D
    • 1,25 Hydroxycholecaliferol
    • Does not need metabolic activation
  39. Dovonex
    • Calcipotriene
    • Synthetic vitamin D analog used in modereate plaque psoriasis
  40. Vitamin E
    • Anit-oxidant scavenge free radicals, plays role in protein synthesis
    • Tocopherol
    • BIoSynthesized from the mevalonic acid pathway
    • The liver is an important storage site for this vitamin
    • Indications: Low serum tocopherol levels, INcreased, fragility of red blood cells, Ischemic heart disease, Artherosclerosis
  41. Vitamin K
    • PLays an important role in the synthesis of clotting factors in the liver
    • Antihemorrhagic activity
  42. Mephyton, AquaMephyton
    • Vitamin K
    • Phytonadione
    • Systemic hemostatic agent based on its critical function in blood
    • Treatment of hypoprothrombinemia cause by malabsorption or diet treatment
    • used to attempt to counter the vleeding cause by coudmarin type anticoagulants
  43. Menadione
    • Vitamin K
    • Converted to vitamin K by the liver
  44. What are the b complex vitamins?
    • Thiamine
    • Riboflavin
    • Pyridoxine
    • Nicotinic Acid
    • Pantothenic Acid
    • Biotin
    • Cyancobalamin
    • Folic Acid
  45. Thiamine
    • Vitamin B1
    • Essential for the metabolism of carohydrates into glucose
    • Result in BERiBeri
    • H2 sol can have mega dose
  46. Calcium Pantothenate
    • Vitamin B5
    • Pantothenic Acid
    • CoEnzyme A
    • Circulates in the body as pantothenate where it is absorbed
  47. Niacin
    • Nicotinic Acid
    • Vitamin B3
    • Indicated in hyperlipidemia to lower triglycerides and cholesterol... Not NIACINAMIDES
    • Serious deficiency leads to a disease called pellagra
    • Needed for the metabolism of food th maintenance of healthy skin nerves and the gastrointestinal tract
    • USed in oxidation/ reduction reactions NAD+
  48. Riboflavin
    • Vitamin B2
    • It is the precursers for the biosynthesis of the Flavin coenzymes involved in various oxidation/reductions
    • Very susceptible t deterioration by light
    • Ariboflavinosis
  49. Pyridoxine
    • Vitamin B6
    • Pyridoxol
    • Pyridoxal
    • Pyridoxamine
    • High doses reported to hlp with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) useful in treating migraine headaches
  50. Cyanocobalamin
    • Vitamin B12
    • Not found in any plant food sources and primarly produced by microorganism
    • Is used in the production of a wide variety of coenzymes used in the processing of carbohydrattes proteins and fats
    • Deficiency leads to anemai
    • Proper function and maintenance of nerve sheaths
  51. Pteroylglutamin acid
    • FOlate
    • Folacin
    • FOlic ACid
    • VItamin B9
    • Humans cannot synthesize
    • Purine and pyridine synthesis
  52. Folvite
    • Folic ACid USP
    • Drug targets: ANtibacterial agent sulfonamides compete with PABA to prevent microbial synthesis of this agent
  53. Wellcovorin
    • Folinic Acid
    • Citrovorum Factor
    • Leucovorin Calcium
    • Rescue intentional overdose of methotrexate
  54. Ascorbic Acid
    • Vitamin c
    • deficiency leads to impaired collagen formation, bleedy gums and impaired wound healing
    • Scurvy
    • Prolyl Hydroxylase after reaction oxidation of Fe3+ back to Fe2+
    • Synthesis of steroids, neurotransmitters collagen
    • Involved in drug metabolism
    • Hiprex and Urex can increase the eficiency because increase the aidicy of the urine
    • Mega doses leads to Oxalate deposits
  55. Biotin
    • Vitamin H
    • Important in the process of carboxylation to introduce carboxyl groups into molecules
  56. Inostiol
    Secondary messengers in cell membranes the phosphoinositides
  57. L-Methionine
    Precursor to S-AdebisylMethyionine SAM, the coenzyme responsble for methylation
  58. Choline
    • Component of biomembranes and plasma phospholipids
    • Treatment of fatty infiltratio of the lier (cirrhosis) CNS disorders such as tardive dydkensia and presenile dementia
    • Serves as a methyl donor in some situations

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