ANAT

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xiongav
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137411
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ANAT
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2012-03-03 21:26:35
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Brain Spinal cord
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  1. Development of the Brain. What does it begin with?
    The CNS begins as a "neural tube".

    By the 4th week, the primary vesicles form.
  2. What are the 3 Primary Vesicles that develop after the fourth week?

    *Mnemonic: PriMaRy
    Prosencephalon = forebrain.

    Mesencephalon = midbrain

    Rhombencephalon = hindbrain.

  3. By the 5th week the primary vesicles further specialze & develop into secondary vesicles.

    What does the first bulge become?

    PriMaRy (Prosencephalon, Mesencephalon and Rhombencephalon)
    • Prosencephalon becomes:
    • 1) Telenephalon: becomes the cerebrum.
    • 2) Diencephalon: becomes the thalamus, hypothalamus & epithalamus.

    Mesencephalon: NO change

    • Rhombencephalon
    • 1) Metencephalon becomes the pons & cerebellum.
    • 2) Myelencephalon becomes the medulla oblongata.
  4. What does the Mesencephalon become?
    Does not form new vesicles and stays UNCHANGED.
  5. Review: What does the 3rd buldge become?

    (Rhombencephalon, 2 parts)
    Rhombencephalon becomes:

    Metencephalon: pons and cerebellum

    Myelencephalon: medulla abongada.

  6. Regarding the Optic Vesicle, what does it become?
    Retina and optic nerves.

    (Outgrowths of the brain).
  7. Name the directions of the brain used in Anatomy.

    Top
    Bottom
    Front
    Posterior
    Top: dorsal (superior)

    Bottom: ventral (inferior)

    Front: anterior (rostral)

    Back: posterior (caudal, dealing with the back of brain)

  8. What does Gray Matter contain?

    What does the White matter consist of?
    Cortex --> Cerebral nuclei.

    White matter has many myelinated axons (gives white appearance)

  9. Protection of the Brain & Spinal Cord.

    What lies outside of the brain to protect it?

    (3 layers called Meninges)
    Outside of the Brain; Piamater,

    outside of the Piamater is called "arachnoid mater".

    outside the "arachnoid mater" is called the.."Dura mater".(meningial blood vessels)

    *Piamater --> Arachnoid mater --> Dura mater (PAD)

  10. What are the meanings of "Pia" and "arach"?

    What fluid is contained in the sub arachnoid mater?
    Pia means "delicate", mater means "mother"

    • Arach means "webby"
    • 1) The sub arachnoid mater contains CSF.
  11. What are the 2 layers in the Dura mater? (2)
    1) Periosteal dura

    2) Meningeal dura

    *septa = partition

  12. What is the Falx Cerebri?
    Portion of the dura mater septa that projects into the longitudianl fissure between the right/left hemispheres of the brain.

  13. When the dura leaves a gap or peals away, it forms a vein-like structure (not true veins), called what 2 sinuses?
    1) Dural venous sinus (super sagittal sinus)

    2) Inferior sagittal sinus

  14. Formation of Falx Cerebri

    (Order of a drop of blood from the front to the back of the brain)
    1) Falx Cerebri form back at the skull to form..

    2) Tentoriam cerebelli (in right hemishpere)

    3) Cerebellum is right below the Tentoriam cerebelli.
  15. What are the 3 ventricles in the brain?

    (CSF follows through these ventricles)
    1) 2 Lateral ventricles (Goes through interventricular foramen)which form..

    2) Third ventricle (Connects to the 4th by the Mesencephalic aqueduct)

    3) Fourth ventricle (contain "apertures" that allow CSF to leave the brain)..the CSF then goes to the "sub arachnoid space"..

  16. What does Hydrocephalus mean?
    "Water" on the brain (expands the skull).

  17. What is the function of the "arachnoid villi"?
    Function of the arachnoid villi is absorb cerebrospinal fluid and return it to the venous circulation.
  18. CSF characteristics, provide what for the brain? (3)
    1) Bouyancy

    2) Shock-absorber for the brain.

    3) Transport nutrients & chemical messengers to the brain and removes waste products.
  19. Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)

    What forms this? (2)
    1) Brain capillaries

    2) Perivascular feet
  20. What does the "Cerebrum" allow us to do? (5)

    *Forms 2 hemispheres (right/left)
    1) Center of REASONING

    2) Stores our MEMORIES.

    3) Initiation of Voluntary movement

    4) Allows us to "comprehend the world around us".

    5) Consious of "sensory input"
  21. What are the features of the Cerebrum? (3 parts)
    1) Lateral fissure

    2) Sulcus

    3) Gyrus
  22. Your right and left hemisphere contains what fissure and callosum?
    1) Longitudinal fissure

    2) Corpus Callosum

  23. What are the important "grooves" of the brain?(3)
    1) Lateral Fissure

    2) Central sulcus (separates motor and sensory)

    -Contains the "precentral gyrus" (initiate voluntary movement on the opposite side of the body).-Post-central Gyrus

    3) 4 lobes

  24. Speech Centers are contained in what 2 lobes?

    What do these lobes help with?

    (2 functions each)
    • 1) Frontal lobe: motor speech area
    • -Speaking
    • -Writing

    • 2) Parietal lobe: Wernicke's area; "sensory" speech area.
    • -Incoming speech (spoken/written) comprehension

  25. What does the Occipital lobe control? (2)
    1) Primary "visual" cortex (visual information)

    2) Visual association area

  26. What are the two cortexes of the Temporal lobe?

    (Identification is not important on exam).
    1) Primary Olfactory Cortex-Smell (Olfactory: sense of smell)

    2) Primary Auditory Cortex -Hearing

  27. Association tracts.

    (Association tracts, Comissural tracts, Projection tracts)

    Define the above.
    Association tracts:

    Comissural tracts: Connects left/right hemispheres(Corpus collosum: major tract)

    Projection tracts: leaves the central hemispheres & projects out of the brain to lower centers (brain stem/spinal cord)
  28. Location of Diencephalon.

    Review: when does it form during PMR?

    3 parts of the diencephalon? (locate)
    1) Thalamus: "information filter"; Principal relay structure for sensory info. traveling up to the somatosensory cortex.

    2) Hypothalamus: review card of 7 functions

    3) Epithalamus: connects

  29. What does the "hypothalamus" control? (7)
    • hypothalamus (hypo: below thalamus):
    • 1) Master controller of autonomic system.
    • 2) Master controller of endocrine system
    • 3) Heart rate
    • 4) Blood pressured
    • 5) Digestion & respiratory function.
    • 6) Regulates body temp.
    • 7) Regulates food and body intake.
  30. The "epithalamus" contains the pineal gland.

    What does this gland secrete and regulate?
    Pineal gland secretes melatonin which helps regulate day-night (circadian) rhythm.

  31. What 3 parts are contained in the brainstem?

    (locate & define the functions of these 3 areas)
    1) Midbrain (mesencephalon)*Mesencephalic aqueduc

    2) Pon: sleep, relay sensory information, controls autonomic functions.

    3) Medulla Oblongata: heart rate/breathing

  32. (Midbrain) What is the "substantia nigra"?

    And what does it deal with?

    What is its neurotransmitter?

    What does degeneration of the above NT cells a reult of (disease)?
    Movement (motor command).

    Dopamine: controls body activity

    Degeneration leads to "Parkinson's Disease".

  33. Pons.(coordinated motor activity)

    What does it relay?

    What is the Pons attached to?

    What is Ataxia (diasease)?
    Attached to the cerebellum.

    1) Relays motor commands

    • 2) Pneumotaxic: rate of breathing
    • Apneustic depth of breathing

    Ataxia: constant uncoordinated activity

  34. Medulla Oblongata functions (3)?

    (connects brainstem w/ spinal cord)
    1) Controls breathing (rate/depth; shared w/ Pons).

    2) Regulates heart's rate (& strength of contraction).

    3) blood flow
  35. Cerebellm: aka "little brain".

    What are the 2 functions?(locate)
    1) Gray matter surface forms "folia leaves".

    2) Coordinates motor activity

  36. What does the limbic system consist of? (4)

    What are its functions?
    • 1) limbic lobe
    • 2) Hippocampus
    • 3) Amygdaloid body
    • 4) Formix

    Function: Processing memories, forming emotions and drives.

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