Chapter 15 (1)
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What are the two types of receptors used in special sense organs?
- Dendrites of specialized neurons.
- Specialized receptors athat synapse with sensory neurons.
What is generator potential?
The process of binding chemicals producing a depolarization of the cell.
Describe how stimulation of specialized recteptors synapse with sensory neurons.
Stimulated receptors release chemical transmitters that depolarize sensory neurons.
Where are olfactory organs found?
- Inferior surface of cribiform plate
- Superior portion of perpendicular plate
- Superior nasal conchae of ethmoid
What are olfactory organs stimulated by?
Olfactory pathways synapse within what?
Axons that leave the bulb travel along the Olfactory tract to what?
- Olfactory cortex
- Potions of the limbic system
What are the two layers of the olfactory organ?
- Olfactory epithelium
- Lamina propia
What is the composition of the olfactory epithelium?
- Olfactory receptor cells
- Supporting cells
- Basal (stem) cells
Olfactory receptor cells each produce what?
What is the function of basal cells in olfactory epithelium?
Replace worn-out receptors
What is the structure and function of the lamina propria?
Contains olfactory glands that produce mucus.
What are the steps of olfactory reception?
- Binding of odorand (a disolved chemical) to its receptor protein. Activates adenylate cyclase which convets ATP to cAMP.
- cAMP opens sodium channels, depolarizing membrane.
- With sufficient depolarization, an action potential may be generated and relayed to CNS.
Describe the composition of odarants.
Generallly small organic molecules
Strongest smells are associated with molecules with what?
High water or lipid solubilities.
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