Bio 130 2nd test notes

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Bio 130 2nd test notes
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  1. When do plants close their stomata?
    When their stressed
  2. Syringa
    Zea
    Mesophytes
  3. Pinus
    Xerophytic
  4. Random movement of molecules from one concentration to another
    Diffusion
  5. Diffusion Depends on:
    • Physical state
    • mass
    • temperature
  6. What elements can diffuse through a selectively permeable membrane?
    • O2
    • CO2
    • H2O
    • Ethanol
  7. What elements cannot diffuse through a selectively permeable membrane?
    • Sugars
    • amino acid
    • ions
  8. Whats the best tonic situation for the cell?
    slightly hypotonic
  9. What happens if the cell is in a hypertonic environment?
    • Plasmolysis:
    • redution of H2O in cell
    • membrane not puching on CW
    • no H2O flow
  10. Energy determines where its going to go
    Water Potential
  11. Ability of H2O to move out of cells
    Relative
  12. Osmotic potential = turgor pressure
    Water Pressure
  13. What a fundamental Principle regarding water flow?
    Water will flow from higher potential to lower potential
  14. List the 4 roles of osmosis:
    • 1. Stomata opening
    • 2. H2O uptake by roots
    • 3. Xylem transport
    • 4. Phloem transport
  15. Balance of CO2 uptake and H2O release by the stomata
    Transpiration
  16. What radially orientated to prevent swelling?
    Cellouse microfibriles
  17. What happens if there an increase in turgor pressure?
    Stomata opens
  18. Adding salt to soil makes the water pressure...
    Lower
  19. lots of H2O uptake through roots
    continously pushes H2O up through xylem
    water pushed out through hydathodes
    Guttation
  20. Vessles on epidermis that open
    Hydathodes
  21. What makes H2O very cohesive?
    Hydrogen Bonding
  22. Tea
    Spices
    Herbs
    Hemp
    Panama Hats
    Human value of leaves
  23. Alkaloids
    Atropene
    Foxglove-digitalis
    Chemicals in leaves for medicinal use
  24. Main function of a leaf
    photosynthesis
  25. No lateral meristems will generate leaves
    Primary in orgin
  26. 1 leaf per node
    Alturnate
  27. 2 leaves per node
    opposite
  28. 3 or more leaves per node
    whorled
  29. What creates the optimal pattern?
    Circle in circle
  30. Why do veins tend to loop back around on themselves?
    • Resilence to damage
    • flucuations in demand
    • more efficient delivery system
  31. H2O can leave the stomata and go where?
    upper leaves
  32. What is it called when veins loop back on each other?
    Optimal Design
  33. When turgor goes down and guard cells close
    Flacid
  34. What are the only epidermal cells that have chloroplast?
    Guard cells
  35. parachyma cells around veins are called:
    bundle sheath
  36. Xyloem w/vessel members
    Angiosperm
  37. Xyloem w/tracheids
    Gymnosperms
  38. phloem w/sieve & companions
    dicots-branching out patterns
    vascular bundles
  39. preprogrammed to fall off
    abcission
  40. cylinder is:
    vascular
  41. * thick cuticle layer
    * stomatal crypt-chamber
    xerophyte
  42. *thicken on the bottom
    * no stomata on bottom
    * lots of air space
    * veins very small
    * not much cuticle
    hydrophytic
  43. Why do leaves turn color in fall?
    Chlorophyll production stops
  44. under pressure because sugar is made at leaf
    phloem
  45. under tension because its being pulled up
    Xylem
  46. a cell, made and stored sugars
    source
  47. a cell, wherever plants need sugar: roots, stems, reproductive parts
    sink
  48. sugar from plasmodesmada to companion cell then transfers to sieve
    symplastic loading method
  49. space between cells, has to cross membrane with protein transport which uses energy via membrane pump
    Apoplastic loading method
  50. synthesis, builds things
    Anabolism
  51. Breaking down, digestion, respiration
    Catabolism
  52. taking small broken down things to make energy
    respiration
  53. * generated other molecules to build other things
    *used both in catabolism and anabolism
    * central
    Krebs cycle
  54. * kills off "bad" microbes
    * yeast turns wine into alcohol
    enzymes
  55. Breaks trisaccharides down because we can't
    Beano
  56. What doesn't our bodies break down?
    fructosuse
  57. *made out of cells, only living things can make
    * biological catalysis
    * speeks up w/o being consumed
    enzymes
  58. reactant
    substrate
  59. Protein enzyme
    apoenzyme
  60. non-protein part of enzyme
    metal ion
    Cofactor
  61. non-protein part
    organic molecules
    Coenzyme
  62. apoenzyme + cofactor=
    holoenzyme
  63. *ends with -ase
    * named for substrate-what they work on
    Protein
  64. pocket created that substrate fits in by induced fit system
    Active Site
  65. latch onto each other
    induced fit
  66. most abundent enzyme in the world with 8 active sites
    Rubisco
  67. enzymes lower this
    activation energy
  68. enzyme loses correct shape bonds break
    -unfolds & sticks together
    Denature
  69. helps cells that get too hot
    Chaporone Proteins
  70. 3 things that enzymes are affected by:
    • 1. Temperature
    • 2. pH
    • 3. Heavey metals
  71. common enzyme shutdown
    allosteric inhibition
  72. What does allosteric inhibition depend on?
    inhibitor concentration
  73. What happens when an inhibitor binds to the allosteric site?
    changes the active site so substrate cannot fit
  74. What determines if product is anabolic or catabolic?
    final product
  75. takes a net amount of energy to happen
    endergonic
  76. releases a net amount of energy to happen
    Exergonic
  77. change in motion or matter
    energy
  78. not yet
    potential
  79. The further the e- get from the nucleus the _________ the potential energy
    greater
  80. saves exergonic energy
    ATP
  81. What is ATP made from?
    Nucleotide
  82. What removes phosphate groups to release energy?
    Hydrolysis
  83. * loss of electrons
    *exergonic rxn
    * releases energy
    Oxidation
  84. * gain of electrons
    * source of covalent bonds
    * required net energy
    * produces ATP
    Reduction
  85. must be coupled
    cannot happen individually
    Oxidation-Reduction RXN's
  86. How pea seeds make CO2?
    germination via respiration
  87. The tow chemicals life needs most
    C6H12O6 + 02
  88. 98% of these organism carry out photosynthese
    plants
  89. What else carries out photosynthesis besides plants
    • algae
    • cyanobacteria
  90. The two main parts of autotrophs
    • light dependent actions
    • sugar-building reactions
  91. pigments in clusters
    photosystems
  92. chlorophyll A molecules surrounded by 100's of pigments
    P700 is favorite wavelength
    mainly A and cartenoids
    Photosystem 1
  93. reaction center is 680
    favors A, B chlorophyll and b carotene
    photosynthesis 2
  94. reaction centers
    • P700
    • P680
  95. the only chlorophyll that e- can be grabbed from
    Chlorophyll A
  96. Non-cyclic electron flow-one way path
    electron transport chain
  97. creates flexible system for photsystem 1
    cyclic electron flow
  98. starting material for cavin cycle
    • 5 C sugar
    • Co2
  99. Enzyme involved in calvin cycle
    Rubisco
  100. How many substrates and active sites does Rubisco have?
    • 2 substrates - oxygen
    • 8 active sites
  101. glucose making cycle
    Calvin Cycle
  102. energy for calvin cycle
    Photosystem I and II
  103. Where energy is stored from photolysis
    electron transport chain
  104. What are the Rubisco substrates?
    • RuBP
    • CO2
    • Oxygen
  105. compounds capable of absorbing light
    pigments
  106. What is the color we on plants?
    the color their reflecting/not absorbing
  107. What colors does chlorophyll absorb?
    red and blue
  108. What colors does carotenoids absorb?
    blue
  109. What is the physical form of light energy?
    photon
  110. When chlorophyll returns e- to lower orbital what is emitted?
    flourensce
  111. What does CO2 and barium hydroxide form?
    Barium Carbonate Ba(CO3)
  112. What is the Kreb's Cycle?
    cellular respiration
  113. What is the calvin Cycle?
    photosynthesis
  114. What is everything in the Krebs Cycle multiplied by?
    2
  115. What are the plants that do photosynthesis?
    C3 mesophylls
  116. What are the disadvantages of photosynthesis?
    • * lowers CO2 and O2
    • * Stoma loses H2O
  117. What is a less dired Rubisco activater?
    • O2
    • -it competes for rubisco's active sites that are intended for CO2
  118. What is bad for C4 plants in regards to photosynthesis?
    • Photorespiration
    • -rxns consume O2 and release CO2 in light
  119. What the bad pathway for rubisco?
    RuBP + O2 ->1 PGA + 2C

    Creates only 1 PGA instead of 2
  120. How does the C4 plants compensate for lack of CO2?
    by taking 2C's (phosphoglycolates) X 2 and makes PGA & CO2
  121. Whats the best way C4 plants compensate for lack of CO2?
    using PEPC to grab the CO2 and transfer them to the Rubisco active site in Kelvin Cycle
  122. What does the C4 plants have that are bigger than other plants?
    hugh bundle sheath cells
  123. Some examples of C4 plants:
    • corn
    • crab grass
    • weeds
    • sugarcane
  124. Some examples of C3 plants:
    • bluegrass
    • wheat
    • rice
    • oats
  125. C4 plant
    salt loving
    edible
    used to make glass
    high in sodium
    maybe used for biofuel
    Sea Bean
  126. C3 vs. C4
    • * C3
    • -Photosynthesis:lower light & lower temperatures

    • *C4
    • -higher temps & not dependent on temperatures
  127. -Comes from crassula plants
    -ex Jada, pineapple
    Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
  128. What does CAM stand for?
    Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
  129. How does CAM photosynthesis happen?
    • @ night-PEPC grabs CO2
    • @ day- regular Calvin Cycle
  130. signal & sensing pigments:
    • phytochrome
    • cryptochrome
  131. plants grown in dark
    etiolation
  132. a pigment that plants use to detect light
    phytochrome
  133. What are the 4 types of phytochrome?
    A, B, C, D
  134. 3 photoreceptor pigments:
    • 1. phytochrome
    • 2 phototrophins
    • 3. crytochromes
  135. plants response to changes in light periods
    -seasonal in nature
    photoperiodism
  136. What are the 4 catagories for photoperiodism?
    • 1. short-day plants
    • 2. long-day plants
    • 3. intermediate-day plants
    • 4. day-length neutral
  137. below critical photoperiod
    -violets, strawberries
    short-day plants
  138. above critical photoperiod
    -spinach, lettuce, wheat, potatoes
    long-day plants
  139. 2 critical photoperiods
    intermediate-day plants
  140. does not depend on the photoperiod
    -tomatoes, roses, sunflowers
    day-length plants
  141. Growth toward or away in response to an external stimulus
    tropism
  142. external stimulus that affects tropism
    • light
    • gravity
    • temp
  143. Growth towards a external stimulus
    positive tropism
  144. growth away from an external stimulus
    negative tropism
  145. 3 types of tropism
    • 1. phototropism
    • 2. gravitropism
    • 3. thigmotropism
  146. growth towards a light
    phototropism
  147. reason plant top goes up
    gravitropism
  148. What is the name of the starch granules that sense gravity in the root cap?
    statoliths
  149. What is the chemical that gets distributed according to gravity and causes cells to elongate?
    auxin
  150. direction is straight until it comes in contact with something else, then winds around
    thimotropism
  151. Grows towards H2O
    hydrotropism
  152. Grows towards certain chemicals
    chemotropism
  153. The 2 biggest reasons the root is pulled towards gravity
    statoliths and the auxin chemical inside it
  154. 4 Turgor movements
    • 1. sleep movement
    • 2. contact movements
    • 3. water conservation plants
    • 4. solar tracking
  155. What is turgor movements?
    The orientation of leaves responding to water pressure that rapidly changes and is reversible
  156. folds up at night
    -circadian rhythm
    sleep movement
  157. leaves will fold up in response to stimulus (touch, heat, wind) at the base of the petiole called pulvinus
    contact movement
  158. what is the base of the petiole called?
    pulvinus
  159. What is pulvinus's description?
    fleshy part of petiole with parenchyma cells
  160. leaf rolling
    water conservation plants
  161. Another name for solar tracking
    heliotropism
  162. plants follow the angle of the sun
    -sunflowers
    solar tracking/heliotropism
  163. What part of the flower will also fold up in response to stimuli?
    stigma
  164. plant growth substances
    hormones
  165. where are the specific membrane receptor sites for hormones?
    proteins
  166. What chemical is involved in turning on genes and begining the building process?
    auxin
  167. name 5 hormones
    • 1. Auxin
    • 2. cytokinins
    • 3. Gibberellins
    • 4. Ethylene
    • 5. abscisic Acid
  168. *increases cell size
    * Went's Experiment
    *makes cell walls stretchy
    *made in apical meristems
    Auxin hormone
  169. What hormone is involved in cutting off the tip of the plant to make the branches and leaves grow more?
    Auxin bc its located there and will slow the plant from growing upwards
  170. What does IAA & Lanolin mimic?
    auxin
  171. faster growing roots
    root initiation
  172. What developes seedless fruits?
    parthenocarpy
  173. If theres a higher amount of auxin on one side of the plant what happens?
    the plant will grow crooked bc auxin causes cells to elongate
  174. * promotes cell division
    * works with auxin to delay senescence
    * adenine similiarities
    * coconut milk
    Cytokinins
  175. What is used in the floral industry to delay flowers from going into senecence?
    cytokinins
  176. * elongates internodes
    * burst of this acid causes "bolting" stem used to pollenate
    * helps grapes enlarge and thicken stem and space them out
    * makes malting process faster by stimulating all possible amylase
    Gibberellins
  177. What is the disease that affects gibberellins?
    • Bakanae disease- fungus
    • causes the hormone to rise to quickly
  178. * rots food
    * aging
    * stress hormone
    * causes epinasty
    Ethylene
  179. bending of the plant part is downwards due to increased growth on the upper side of an organ.
    epinasty
  180. * inhibitory hormone
    * closes stomata by inhibiting K+ pumps
    * stops seed germentation
    * counter acts other hormones
    Abscisic Acid
  181. breaking down of glucose
    glycolysis
  182. The cellular respiration stage that uses 2 ATP's right away
    Glycolysis
  183. anaerobic glycolysis produces what?
    fermentation
  184. Products produced in glycolysis
    • 2 ATP Makes 4 but use 2
    • 2 NADP
    • 2 pyruvate (3C)
  185. Materials needed to start glycolysis
    • 1 glucose (6C)
    • 2 NAD+
    • 2 ATP
    • 4 ADP
    • 2 phosphate groups
  186. "losing" electrons

    H2O
    H's losing
    Oxidation
  187. "gaining" electrons

    H2O
    O gaining
    Reduction
  188. Whats used in the electron transport chain?
    • 10 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
  189. How many ATP's does the NADH in Electron Transport Chain make?
    1 NADH ->3 ATPs

    so 30 ATP total
  190. How many ATPs does the FADH2 make in the electron transport chain?
    1 FADH2 -> 2 ATPs

    so 4 ATPs total
  191. 2e- + H(+) + 1/2 O2 -> H2O
    Reduction
  192. Is it more acidic(H+) or basic(H-) in the matrix of the mitrochondria?
    basic
  193. Protein going through mitrochondria that is complex and spins when H+ goes though
    ATP Sythase
  194. What happens when the ATP synthase inner axil turns?
    Squeezes ADP and phosphate groups together in the housing in the matrix
  195. Cellular Respiration order:
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebs System
    • Electron Trainsport Chain
  196. Basic idea of Electron Transport Chain
    • Electrons is coming from NADH
    • going to the NAD+
    • Keep going down in energy
    • the lost energy is being used to pump H+ protons into the outer compartment of the mitrochondria
    • Those H+ want to get back into the matrix of the mitrochondria and do so by going through the ATP synthesis creating a ton of ATP
  197. carbohydrates in glycolysis are produced into:
    pyruvic acid
  198. Pyruvic acid goes:
    into mitrochondria
  199. Where does glycolysis take place?
    cytoplasm
  200. What is psi?
    Newton force/Megapascal/water potential
  201. Plants naturally solution to plasmolysis
    • osmotic adjustment
    • the adapted ability to increase cytoplasm concentration
  202. What structure of the plant is determinent growth
    leaves
  203. plant morphology/arrangement
    philotaxi
  204. Why do plants have spiral pattern leaves?
    to maximize light capture
  205. What can stipules become if hardened?
    stipule spines
  206. what type of cell provides support along the midrib of the leaf, where greater amount of vascular tissue is present
    collenchyma
  207. the enzyme that is a highly reactive substance that forms and then reacts further during the conversion of reactants to products
    intermediate
  208. List the colors of the spectrum from low to high
    • red
    • orange
    • yellow
    • green
    • blue
    • violet
  209. What is the spectrum number for red?
    780
  210. What is the spectrum number for blue
    380
  211. consists of accessory pigment molecules, which collect light energy and pass it to the 2nd component
    antenna complex
  212. Why is it called Noncyclic Electron Flow?
    bc the flow of electrons is in one direction
  213. Why is it called the Cyclic Electron Flow?
    No water is split and no oxygen released
  214. What is the benefit of Cyclic Electron Flow?
    provides additional ATP to drive the carbon-fixation rxns in photosynthesis
  215. Where are the protons pumped into from the electron transport chain?
    thylakoid lumen
  216. How many turns of the Calvin Cycle is needed to emerge one PGAL?
    3 turns
  217. 5 processes of respiration
    • 1. glycolysis
    • 2. acetyl coenzyme A formation
    • 3. the Krebs cycle
    • 4. electron transport chain
    • 5. chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation
  218. Where does glycolysis occur?
    cytoplasm
  219. Where does the formation of acetyl coenzyme A and Krebs cycle occur?
    matrix of the mitochondria
  220. Where does the electron transport chain and oxicative phosphorylation occur?
    Membranes of the cristae
  221. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the chain and energy is captured in a phosphorylation when a phosphate group is added to ADP to form ATP
    Why its called Oxidative Phosphorylation
  222. The flow of protons
    Chemiosmosis
  223. Growth Responses are called:
    photomorphological effects
  224. photomorphological pigments:
    • phytochrome
    • cryptochrome
  225. highlights of light reactions:
    • * thlakoid lumen
    • * photolysis
    • * electrons, protons, oxygen
    • * P680
    • * ATP & NADPH -> Calvin cycle
  226. Highlights of Calvin Cycle:
    • * Stroma of chloroplast
    • * 5 carbon sugar: RuBP
    • * Rubisco
    • * PGA/3C
    • * Reduction: ATP & NADPH
    • * PGA -> PGAL
    • * PGAL -> RuBP
    • * X6
  227. Highlights of Glycolysis:
    • * Cytoplasm
    • * 3 carbon sugars: pyruvic acid
    • * 2 ATP
    • * 2 NADH
    • * 2 Pryuvates
  228. Highlights of Acetyl CoA formation:
    • * Pyruvate gives off CO2
    • * Oxidization
    • * NADH X2
  229. Highlights of Krebs Cycle:
    • * mitrochondria Matrix
    • * Pyruvate -> OAA
    • * Citric acid
    • * CO2: 2
    • * ATP: 2
    • * FADH: 2
    • * NADH: 6
    • * multiply everything by 2
    • * Citric acid + H20=malate
      * Reduction
  230. Highlights of Electron Transport Chain:
    • * cristae membranes
    • * Cytochromes
    • * 10 NADH
    • * 2 FADH
    • * Reduction
    • * Oxygen + H+ = H2O
    • * Acidic intermembrane
  231. Highlights of Chemiosmosis and oxidative Phosphorylation:
    • * Intermembrane of Mitrochondria
    • * ATP Synthase
  232. Where else is ATP produced other than the ATP Synthase?
    Krebs and glycolysis
  233. Fermentation produces:
    • latic acid
    • ethanol + CO2
  234. What system produces CO2?
    Respiration
  235. What system uses CO2?
    Photosynthesis

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