Card Set Information
an imaginary straight line through the center and the pole of Earth.
the two points on the Earth's surface where the axis of rotation emerges.
network of parallels and meridians, used to fix location on Earth.
east-west circle of Earth's surface lying in a plane parallel to the equator
north-south line on Earth's surface, connecting the poles.
a parallel of latitude lying midway between the Earth's poles; it is designated latitude 0?.
arc of a meridian between the equator and a given point on the globe.
arc of a parallel between the prime meridian and a given point on the globe.
-a system of parallels and meridians representing the Earth's curved surface drawn on a flat surface.
map projections with horizontal parallels and vertical meridians.
equal-area map projection often used to display information, such as climate or soil type.
map projection center on Earth's North or South Pole.
time system based on the local time of a standard meridian and applied to belts of longitude extending roughly 71/2 degrees on either side of the meridian.
zones or belts within which standard time is applied
solstice occurring on December 21 or 22, when the subsolar point is at 231/2 S also termed December solstice.
solstice occurring on June 21 or 22, when the subsolar point is at 231/2 N; also termed June solstice.
instant in time when the subsolar point falls on the Earth's equator and the circle of illumination passes through both poles.
wave-like form of energy radiated by any substance possessing heat; it travels through space at the speed of light.
process in which electromagnetic energy is transferred to heat energy when radiation strikes molecules or particles in a gas, liquid, or solid.
process in which particles and molecules deflect incoming solar radiation in different directions on collision; atmospheric scattering can redirect solar radiation back to space.
electromagnetic radiation in the range 3 to 50 um; the Earth emits Longwave radiation.
electromagnetic energy in the range from 0.2 to 3um; most solar radiation is shortwave radiation.
the flow of solar energy intercepted by an exposed surface assuming a uniformly spherical Earth with no atmosphere.
form of oxygen with a molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen; O3.
an indication of the intensity of kinetic energy of molecular motion within a substance; it is measured by a thermometer
heat absorbed and stored in gas or liquid during the processes of evaporation, melting, or sublimation.
proportion of solar radiation reflected upward from a surface.
Longwave atmospheric radiation moving downward toward the Earth's surface.
accumulation of heat in the lower atmosphere through the absorption of Longwave radiation from the Earth's surface.
the difference in energy flow between all radiant energy coming into a surface and all radiant energy leaving the surface.
the process by which plants lose water to the atmosphere by evaporation through leaf pores.
the combined water loss to the atmosphere by evaporation from soil and transpiration from plants.
Urban heat island-
area at the center of a city that has higher temperature than surrounding areas.
reversal of normal temperature pattern so that air temperature rises with altitude.
line on a map drawn through points with the same temperature.
rate of temperature change along a selected line or direction.
rate at which air temperature drops with increasing altitude.
lowest layer of the atmosphere in which temperature falls steadily with increasing height
tiny particles present in the atmosphere
layer of atmosphere directly above troposphere here temperature slowly increase with height.
total water realm of the Earth's surface including the oceans surface water of the lands ground water and water held in the atmosphere.
particles if liquid water or ice that fall from the atmosphere and may reach the ground.
the amount of water vapor in the air.
temperature at which air with a given humidity will reach saturation when cooled without changing its pressure
the physical principle that a gas cools as it expands and warm as it compressed, provided that no heat flows in or out of the gas during the process.
Dry adiabatic lapse rate-
rate at which rising air is cooled by expansion when no condensation is occurring 10 C per 1000m (3.5 F per 1000ft)
Wet adiabatic lapse rate-
rate at which rising air is cooled by expansion when condensation is occurring ranges from 4 to 9 C per 1000m (2.2 to 4.9 F per ft)
a tiny bit of solid matter (aerosol) in the atmosphere on which water vapor condenses to form a tiny water droplet.
precipitation induced when moist air is forced over a mountain barrier.
precipitation induced when warm, moist air is heated at the ground surface, rises, cools, and condenses to form water droplets, raindrops and eventually rainfall,
intense local storm associated with a tall dense cumulonimbus cloud in which there are very strong updrafts of air.
an unwanted substance injected into the atmosphere from the Earth's surface by either natural or human activities includes aerosols, gases, and particulates.
pressure exerted by the atmosphere because of the force of gravity acting upon the overlying column of air
instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
change in atmospheric pressure measured along a line at right angles to the isobars
lines on a map drawn through all points having the same atmospheric pressure
circuit of moving fluid such as air or water created by unequal heating of fluid
effect of the Earth's rotation that acts like a force to deflect a moving object on the Earth's surface to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere
center of low atmospheric pressure
center of high atmospheric pressure
low-latitude atmospheric circulation cell with rising air over the equatorial trough and sinking air over subtropical high-pressure belts
Intertropical convergence zone ITCZ-
zone of convergence of air masses along the equatorial trough
subtropical high-pressure belt-
belt of persisent high atmoshpheric pressure centered about on lat 30 N and S
front lying between cold polar air masses and warm tropical air masses
wind at hight levels above the Earth's surface blowing parallel with a system of straight parallel isobars
horizontal undulatios in the flow path of the upper-westerlies alos known as upper air waves
high-speed air flow in narrow bands within the upper=air westerlies and along certain other global latitude zones at high levels
persistent, dominantly horizontal flow of water
extensive body of air in which temperature and moisture characteristics are fairly uniform over a large area
surface contact between two unlike air masses
moving weather front along which a cold air mass movers underneath a warm air mass lifting the war air mass
moving weather front along which a warm air mass slides over a cold air mass leading to production of stratiform clouds and precipitation
weather front along which a moving cold front has overtaken a warm front forcing the warm air mass aloft
intense weather distrubance within a moving cyclone generating strong winds, cloudiness, and precipitation
traveling cyclone of the the midlatitudes involving interaction of cold and warm air masses along sharply defined fronts
small very intense wind vortex with extremely low air pressure in the center formed between a dense cumulonimbus cloud in promixity to a cold front
intense traveling cyclone of tropical and subtropical latitudes accompanied by high winds and heavy rainfall
rapid rise of coastal water level accompanying the onshore arrival of a tropical cyclone