Psych-155-Study Guide Exam-1

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teknevo
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137489
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Psych-155-Study Guide Exam-1
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2012-02-26 16:35:14
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Research Methods
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Research Methods & Behavioral Observations
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  1. What is Statistical Significance
    Tells you that your resultys were probably not due to chance
  2. Reinforcement Procedure
    Where the behavior is followed by a stimulus (the reinforcer) intended to increase its strenght
  3. Punishment Procedure
    Where the behavior is follwed by a stimulus (the punisher) intended to reduce its strenght
  4. Stability Criteria
    • Help us decide when we should change phases; should be:
    • -objective: pre-determined, clearly defined
    • -easily met in a reasonable amount of time
    • -consistent with those used by others
  5. Withdrawal Designs
    • ABAB Desgin
    • Withdrawal of Treatment/return to Baseline phase
  6. Limitations of Withdrawal Designs
    • -May not be ethical/impractical because they require removing an effective treatment
    • -Cannot study treatments with long-lasting irreversible effects
    • -Require many sessions to complete
  7. Multiple Baseline Designs
    Allow us to assess our treatment by comparing its effect on different behaviors, settings, or people rather than by withdrawing treatment
  8. Repeated Acquisition (RA) Procedure
    • 1. Acquisition of a new response chain is considered "learning"
    • 2. Repeating the same response chain in each session is considered "performance"
  9. species-specific(instinctual)
    automatic patterns of behavior common to members of a species
  10. Reflexive
    Automatic response to stimuli
  11. Learned
    Acquired through experience
  12. Classical Conditioning
    learning predictable signals
  13. Operant Conditioning
    learning to change the world
  14. Observational learning
    learning by watching others
  15. Thorndike and the Law of Effect
    Mental processes were not necessary for learning; all that was necessary was a connection between the response(pulling the string) and the effect of that response (getting out of the box and getting food) -- > Law of Effect
  16. Operant behavior (or response)
    • -activites that are influenced by their consequences or outcomes
    • -operant behavior involves manipulation of the environment; such behavior operates on the environment to change it.
  17. Operant response class
    • All behaviors that have the same function- produce the same outcome or consequence
    • -ex--turning on a TV: how many different ways?
    • -ex--Decreasing the temperature: how many different ways?
  18. Operant Behavior to Occur Requires
    • -Individual must know how to perform the behavior (the individual has learned the behavior)
    • -Individual must be able to perform the behavior in the current situation
    • -Individual must know when to perform the behavior
    • -Individual must want to perform the behavior
    • motivational variables are in effect
  19. Reinforcers
    • appetitive stimuli that strengthen the behaviors they follow
    • -Good" things that happen or that we want to happen
    • -Not all reinforcers produce changes in mood or produce
    • noticeable feelings
  20. Punishers
    • aversive stimuli that weaken the behaviors they follow
    • -"Bad: things that happen or that we don't want to happen
  21. Unconditioned (primary) reinforcers
    • biologically relevant stimuli strengthen behavior without a learning history
    • -Food, water, temperature changes, sexual contanct, etc.
  22. Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers
    • Strenghten behavior as a result of a particular learning history
    • -Points, money, cool clothes, kind words, grades, etc.
  23. Unconditioned (primary) punishers
    • biologically relevant stimuli that weaken behavior without requiring a learning history
    • Pain, temperature changes, threatening behaviors, loss of appetitive
    • stimuli
  24. Conditioned (secondary) punishers
    • Weaken behavior due to a particular learning history
    • Hurtful words, loss of conditioned appetitive, stimuli
  25. Operant Antecedents
    -Dissctiminative Stimuli-- >
    Environmental events that signal that reinforcers or punishers are more available (i.e., are more likely to follow certain behaviors)

    • *Operant behaviors that differ in the presence vs. the absence of discriminative stimuli are stimulus controlled
    • *Discriminative stimuli (SDS) Signal that consequence are currently more available than they were before
  26. SD for reinforcers
    You can now get what you want!

    • -ex--"open" sign at a restaurant when you are hungry
    • -ex--eye contact when you would like to speak with someone
    • -ex--green light at an intersection
  27. SD for Punishers
    You better watch out!

    • -ex--presence of police officer when you are driving
    • -ex--rain clouds when you are walking
    • -ex--mom and dad at home when you want to do something
  28. S-delta (S^)
    • opposite of SD, signals that reinforcers/punishers are less available or not avaialable at all
    • -ex--closed sign= S^ for food-related behaviors (can't) get the food you want)
    • -ex--police officer turns onto a different road= S^ for
    • illegal driving behaviors you wont get stopped for
    • speeding
  29. Motivating Operations (MOs)
    Events or objects that make certain outcomes more or less effective in influencing later behavior
  30. Two effects of MOs
    • 1. They make reinforcers or punishers more or less effective (value-altering effect)
    • 2.They influence the occurrence of current behavior related to those consequences (behavior-altering effect)
  31. Contingencies of Reinforcement & Punishment
    • A=MOs (motives), SDs (cues)
    • B=behavior
    • C=reinforcers or punishers
  32. Operant Extinction
    When a behavior no longer produces a reinforver, that behavior eventually stops occuring
  33. Positive Reinforcement
    an appetative stimulus is presented after a behavior and the behavior increases in strenght (or maintains the same strenght)
  34. Negative Reinforcement
    an aversive stimulus is removed after a behavior and the behavior increases in strength
  35. Escape
    • termination of an aversive stimulus
    • -turning off clock alarm when it is buzzing
  36. Avoidance
    prevention of the occurence of an aversive stimulus
  37. Positive Punishment
    an aversive stimulus is presented after a behavior and the behavior decreases in strenght
  38. Negative Punishment
    an appetative stimulus is removed after a behavior and the behavior decreases in strenght
  39. Generalized Consequences
    associated with several different consequences and thereby become less dependent on specific MOs
  40. Incentives
    anticipated consequences
  41. Stimulus Control
    Having a good stimulus control means that the probability of the behavior varies depending on the stimuli present
  42. Unconditioned Consequences
    have the capacity to change behavior without a learning history

    • -ex--food, water, pain, sexual stimuli, temperature extremes,
    • sleep, etc.
  43. Conditioned Consequences
    have the capacity to change behavior as a result of a particular learning history

    • -ex--results from personal experience (pairing with
    • unconditioned or conditioned consequences)
  44. Motivating Operations
    • events or objects that make certain outcomes more or
    • less effective in influencing later behavior
  45. Delay Consequences
    are less effective than immediate consequences; the longer the delay, the weaker the behavior-changing effects
  46. Delay Discounting
    the longer the delay to the future reinforcer, the less valuable it is to the organism (it won't motivate behavior as strongly)

    -ex-$20 now or $50 in one year

    Self-Control--often involves choosing larger, delayed incentives over smaller, immediate incentives
  47. Premack Principle
    Behaviors can serve as reinforcers/punishers

    Preferred behaviors can be used to reinforce less preferred behaviors

    Eat your vegetables, then you get dessert
  48. Probability-Differential Hypothesis
    low-probability responses can be reinforced using high-probability responses as consequences
  49. Objective Value
    Physical properties of a consequence that can be measured without reference to the behavioral effects of that stimulus
  50. Subjective Value
    properties of a stimulus that result from an organisms judgments (self-reported or behavioral) about that stimulus
  51. Extrinsic vs Intrinsic Motivation
    -Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation derived from external sources (reinforcers/punishers)

    -Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation derived from the behaviors themselves (the behaviors themselves are rewarding or punishing)
  52. Incentive Value
    incentives differ with respect to their motivational value or properties

    -the ability of the incentive to motivate behavior before the incentive is delivered

    -the ability of the incentive to change future behavior after the incentive is delivered; reinforcing or punishing value
  53. Evocative
    increases in current strenght

    • - EO's for reinforcers
    • -AO's for punishers
  54. Abative
    decreases in current strenght

    • -AOs for reinforcers
    • -EOs for punishers
  55. MO's have two Effects
    • 1-They make reinforcers or punihsers more or less effective (value-altering effect)
    • 2-They influence the occurrence of behavior related to those consequences (behavior-altering effect)
  56. EO for Reinforcer
    -food deprivation makes food more effective as a reinforcer and increases behavior that has produced food in the past (two effects)
  57. EO for Punisher
    making a time-in situation fun and rewarding makes time-out more effective as a punisher and will decrease behavior that has produced time-out in the past (two-effects)
  58. AO for Reinforcer
    food satiation makes food less effective as a reinforcer and decreases behavior that has produced food in the past (two effects)
  59. AO for Punisher
    alcohol makes shock less effective as a punisher and increases behavior that has produced shock in the past (two effects?)

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