Bacteria and Protists

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  1. Gram positive (+) bacteria
    • retains purple dye
    • large amount of peptidoglycan in outer layer
  2. cyanobacteria (blue green bacteria)
    • prokaryotic
    • autotrophic
    • possess chl a but no chloroplasts
    • reproduce by binary fission and create a mucus sheath around them
    • often form colonies
    • can glide through medium
    • have heterocysts
    • ex: Anabaena
  3. "Algae"
    • unicellular autotrophs
    • both sexual and asexual reproduction
    • many form a resistant spore-like resting stage to survive harsh conditions
    • ex: dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophyta, charophyta
  4. Kinetoplastida: Trynasoma
    • flagellates
    • cause sleeping sickness
    • live in blood and absorb nutrients directly across cell membranes (extracellular parasites)
  5. contractile vacuoles
    used to expel water from freshwater species
  6. intracellular digestion
    lysosomes, which carry digestive enzymes, fuse with food vacuoles --> prey is digested --> digested molecules then diffuse out of the food vacuole and into the cytoplasm
  7. phagocytosis
    • process by which the cell surrounds its prey with pseudopodia, which subsequently fuse together
    • forms food vacuoles
  8. endoplasm
    • fluid, mobile cytoplasm
    • converted into ectoplasm at teh tip of the pseudopodium, causing it to be anchored into place
  9. ectoplasm
    peripheral rim of stim cytoplasm just under the cell membrane
  10. extremophiles
    • live in stressful environments of high temperature (thermophiles) or saltiness (halophiles)
    • may live in anarobic environment
    • archaea only ones with this ability
  11. diplo--
    (colony type)
    connected pair of bacteria
  12. staphylo--
    (colony type)
    clusters of bacteria
  13. strepto--
    (colony type)
    long chains of bacteria
  14. cocci
    (bacterial shape)
  15. isogamete
    gametes that are indistinguishable in form, size, or behavior from another gamete with which it fuses (ex: fungi nuclei)
  16. spirochetes
    (bacterial shape)
  17. bacilli
    (bacterial shape)
    elongated rods
  18. protoplast
    • consists of:
    • * cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
    • * i.e. entire living portion of body
  19. conjunction
    • sexual reproduction (ex: for Spirogyra)
    • opposite mating types (+/-) meet
    • contents of (-) straing travels through haploid filament tube and fuses with cytoplast of the (+) strain
    • thus the protoplasts of each cell acts as an isogamete
  20. chlorophyta ("green algae")
    • ex: Volvox, Spirogyra
    • unicellular, colonial species
    • contain chl a and b, store starch
    • independent cells
    • produce daughter colonies asexually
    • eggs and flagellated sperm
    • sexual life cycle: sperm fuses with egg --> diploid zygote --> enlarges and forms zygospore --> released when parent colongy disintegrates --> produce haploid cells inside zygospore that are released
  21. Division Bacillariophyta
    • ex: diatoms
    • possess chl a and various xanthophyll pigments
    • "golden brown algae"
    • hard outer cell wall made of silicon dioxide (glass) and calcium carbonates (often paired and overlapping walls)
    • creates awesome shapes and colors
  22. dinoflagellates
    • ex: Ceratium
    • cell wall made of overlapping plates of cellulose
    • pair of dissimilar flagella; lie in perpendicular grooves
    • causes red tides
    • mixotrophic: autotropic and can obtain food by phagocytosis
  23. gram negative (-) bacteria
    • appears reddish
    • little peptidoglycan layer
    • additional outer membrane of phospholipids
    • tend to be pathogenic; outer membrane can be toxic, prevents movement of antibiotics and defensive compounds
  24. conjugation
    • sexual reproduction; exchange of genetic material
    • different mating strains meet and temporarily fuse at oral groove
    • diploid micronucleus undergoes mitotic and meiotic events --> cells eventually exchange haploid micronuclei --> inside each, 2 haploid micronuclei fuse --> cell undergoes cell division to produce daughter cells
  25. binary fission
    • asexual reproduction
    • seen in Paramecium, Amoeba, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, etc.
    • nucleus undergoes mitosis, then cytoplasm splits
  26. Ciliata: Paramecium
    • move by ciliary action
    • have pellicle - rigid outer covering of cell membrane; provides some support and protection
    • oral groove leads to the cytosome ("mouth")
    • some contractile vacuoles
    • micro and macronuclei
  27. definitive host
    insect host (ex) in which the parasite undergeos sexual reproduction, wich fertilization and meiosis, for a certain pathogen
  28. intermediate host
    human host (ex) in which the parasite undergoes asexual reproduction
  29. Apicomplexa: Plasmodium
    • apical complex - group of organelles used to penetrate host cells
    • parasites
    • no known means of locomotion
    • causes malaria
    • intracellular parasite
  30. Rhizopodia: Amoeba
    • move by using pseudopodia
    • many are parasites, predators, scavengers
    • can form cysts that allow them to withstand times of drought
  31. Euglena
    • two flagella - anterior one is larger
    • form a unique type of starch (paramylon)
    • stigma - eyespot, acts as a primitive eye that allows it to react minimally to environmental stimuli
    • reproduce asexually by binary fission
    • mixotrophic
  32. "Protozoa"
    • animal-like unicellular organisms
    • eukaryotic ("true nucleus")
  33. gram stains
    • based on differences in the structure and chemical composition of the cell walls
    • can be gram + (retains purple dye) or gram - (does not retain purple dye, may appear more reddish)
  34. heterocysts
    specialized cells in which nitrogen fixation occurs
  35. bacterial colony
    cluster of organisms descended from a single cell (thus are all genetically identical)
  36. Phaeophyta: "kelps"/seaweeds
    • "brown algae"
    • multicellular
    • autotrophs
    • found in shallow marine habitats
    • consist of tissues/organs that are analogous to similar structures in plants
    • *thallus (large body)
    • *holdfast (roots)
    • *stipes (stems)
    • *blades (leaves)
    • *air bladder floats
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Bacteria and Protists
2012-02-25 01:42:51
Bio 244 lab

Unit 11
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