Ch5_Medical_Terminology_Cadiovascular_Part4_Pathology_of_Blood_Vessels_&_ Blood

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havenwood
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137552
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Ch5_Medical_Terminology_Cadiovascular_Part4_Pathology_of_Blood_Vessels_&_ Blood
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2012-02-25 02:07:00
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Medical Terminology Health Professionals 6E Pathology blood vessels
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Ch5 Medical Terminology Cardiovascular System Part 4 - Pathology of Blood Vessels & Blood
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  1. Angiitis or Angitis
    1. Also known as vasculitis.

    2. Inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel
  2. Hemangioma
    1. Benign tumor made up of newly formed blood veseels.
  3. Hypoperfusion
    Deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part.
  4. Perfusion
    Flow of blood through the vessels of an organ
  5. Polyarteritis
    1. Also known as polyarteritis nodosa.

    2. Form of angiitis involving several medium and small arteries at the same time.

    3. Serious blood vessel disease that occurs when certain immune cells attack the affected area.
  6. Peripheral vasular disease
    1. Refers to disorders of the blood vessels located outside the heart and brain.

    • 2. Disorders usually involve narrowing of the vessels that carry blood to the:
    • .....a. Legs
    • .....b. Arms, or
    • .....c. Kidneys
  7. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease
    1. Also known as peripheral artery disease.

    2. Example of a peripheral vasular disease caused by atherosclerosis.

    3. Common and serious problem affecting more than 20% of patients over 70 years of age.

    4. Impaired circulation to the extremities and vital organs cause changes in skin color & temperature, as well as intermittent claudication.
  8. Raynaud's phenomenon
    1. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress.

    2. Symptoms are due to constricted circulation and include pallor and cyanosis, then redness of fingers and toes.
  9. Aneurysm
    1. Localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery.

    2. The rupture of an aneurym can be fatal because of the rapid loss of blood.

    3. Aneurysms are named for the artery involved such as abdominal aortic aneurysm or popliteal aneurysm.
  10. Arteriosclerosis
    1. Also known as hardening of the arteries.

    2. Any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening and the loss of elasticity of arterial walls.
  11. Chronic venous insufficiency
    1. Also known as venous insufficiency

    2. Condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves.

    3. Primarily affects feet and ankles.

    4. Leakage of venous blood into the tissues causes discoloration of the skin.
  12. Phlebitis
    1. Inflammation of a vein

    2. Usually occurs in a superficial vein.
  13. Varicose veins
    1. Any abnormally swollen veins.

    2. Usually occurs in superficial veins of the legs.

    3. Occurs when valves in the veins malfunction and allow blood to pool in these veins, causing them to enlarge.
  14. Thromboses (singular Thrombosis)
    1. Abnormal condition of having a thrombus (blood clot)
  15. Thrombus
    Clot attached to interior wall of an artery or vein.
  16. Thrombotic occlusion
    Blocking of artery by a thrombus.
  17. Coronary occlusion
    Damage to heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery.
  18. Deep vein thrombosis
    1. Also known as a deep venous thrombosis or DVT.

    2. Condition of having a thrombus attached to the wall of a deep vein.

    3. Blockage sometimes forms in the legs of a bedridden patient or someone who has remained seated too long on an airplane or car ride.

    4. Danger is that the thrombus will break off and travel to a lung when it can be fatal.
  19. Embolism
    1. Sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus.

    2. The embolism is often named for the causative factor, such as an air embolism or a fat embolism.
  20. Embolus
    • 1. Foreign object circulating in the blood.such as:
    • .....a. Blood clot
    • .....b. Quanity of air or gas
    • .....c. A bit of tissue
    • .....d. A bit of tumor
  21. Blood dyscrasia
    Any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood.
  22. Hemochromatosis
    1. Also known as iron overload disease

    2. Genetic disorder in which the intestines absorb too much iron.

    3. The excess iron that is absorbed enters the bloodstream and accumulates in organs where it causes damage.
  23. Leukopenia
    1. Describes any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the circulating blood is less than normal.

    2. Since these cells combat infection, this condition can place patients at an increased risk.
  24. Polycythemia
    1. Abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood

    2. Due to excess production of these cells by the bone marrow.
  25. Septicemia
    1. Formerly known as blood poisoning.

    2. Systemic condition caused by the spread of microorgnisms and their toxins via the circulating blood.
  26. Thrombocytopenia
    1. Condition in which there is an abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood.

    2. Because these cells help the blood to clot this condition is sometimes asociated with abnormal bleeding.
  27. Thrombocytosis
    1. Abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the ciculating blood.
  28. Hemorrhage
    1. Loss of a large amount of blood in a short time.

    2. Term also means to bleed (profusely.)
  29. Transfusion reaction
    1. Serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion

    2. A severe immune response occurs because the patient's and the donor's blood do not match.
  30. Cholesterol
    1. Fatty substance that travels through the blood

    2. Is found in all parts of the body

    • 3. Aids in the production of:
    • .....a. Cell membranes
    • .....b. Some hormones
    • .....c. Vitamin D

    • 4. Comes from:
    • .....a. Dietary sources
    • .....b. Created in the liver

    5. Excessively high levels of certain types of cholesterol can lead to heart disease.
  31. Hyperlipidemia
    1. Also known as hyperlipemia.

    2. General term used to describe elevated levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood.
  32. Myelodysplastic syndrome
    1. Previously known as preleukemia.

    2. Group of bone marrow disorders characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells

    3. Due to dysfunction of the bone marrow.
  33. Leukemia
    1. Type of cancer

    • 2. Characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes (WBCs) found in:
    • .....a. Blood forming tissues
    • .....b. Other organs
    • .....c. Circulating blood
  34. Anemia
    1. Lower than normal number of erythrocytes (RBCs) in the blood.

    2. The severity of this condition is usually measured by a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood.

    • 3. When inadequate hemoglobin is present, all parts of the body:
    • .....a. Receive less oxygen
    • .....b. Have less energy than is needed to function properly
  35. Aplastic anemia
    1. Characterized by an absence of ALL formed blood elements

    2. Caused by failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow.

    3. Anemia (low RBC) - leads to fatigue and weakness

    4. Leukopenia (low WBC) - causes increased risk of infection

    5. Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) results in bleeding from muscus membranes and skin.
  36. Hemolytic anemia
    1. Condition of inadequate number of circulating red blood cells

    2. Due to premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen.
  37. Iron-deficiency anemia
    1. Most common form of anemia.

    • 2. Iron, an essential component of hemoglobin, is normally obtained through:
    • .....a. Diet
    • .....b. Recycling iron from old red blood cells

    3. Blood requires sufficient iron to carry oxygen effectively.
  38. Megaloblastic anemia
    1. Blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal

    • 2. Condition usually results from a deficiency of:
    • .....a. Folic acid and/or
    • .....b. Vitamin B12
  39. Pernicious anemia
    • Caused by a lack of the protein intrinsic factor (IF)
  40. Intrinsic factor (IF)
    1. Helps body absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract.

    2. Vitamin B12 is necessary for formation of red blood cells.
  41. Sickle cell anemia
    1. Genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin

    2. Some red blood cells assume an abnormal sickle shape.

    3. Sickle shape interferes with normal blood flow, resulting in damage to most of the body systems.
  42. Thalassemia
    1. Inherited blood disorder

    • 2. Causes mild or severe anemia due to:
    • .....a. Reduced hemoglobin
    • .....b. Fewer red blood cells than normal

    3. Cooley's anemia is severe type of thalassemia requiring regular transfusions.
  43. Cooley's anemia
    Severe type of thalassemia requiring regular transfusions.
  44. Hypertension
    1. Commonly known as high blood pressure.

    2. Elevation of arterial blood pressure to a level tht is likely to cause damage to the cardiovascular system.
  45. Essential hypertension
    1. Also known as primary or idiopathic hypertension.

    2. Consistently elevated blood pressure of unknown cause.
  46. Idiopathic
    Means disease of unknown cause
  47. Secondary hypertension
    • 1. Caused by an unlying identifiable and different medical problem, such as:
    • .....a. Kidney disease or
    • .....b. A tumor on the aadrenal glands

    2. When the other problem is resolved/cured, the hypertension usually goes away.
  48. Malignant hypertension
    • 1. Severe essential hypertension characterized by
    • .....a. Sudden onset
    • .....b. very high blood pressure
    • .....c. Rapid progression of symptoms
    • .....d. Poor prognosis

    • 2. This condition can be fatal and is usually accompanied by damage to the:
    • .....a. Other organs
    • .....b. Brain
    • .....c. Optic nerves
    • .....d. Heart (including heart failure)
    • .....e. Kidneys

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