BIOL 2114 Lab
Card Set Information
BIOL 2114 Lab
Chpt 20 21 22
Chpt 20, 21 & 22 test
innermost layer-in contact with blood; forms smooth layer for reduced friction, lines the lumen of a vessel; single thin layer of endothelium.
tunica interna or intima
bulky middle layer; made up of smooth muscle (plays role in regulating BP & peripheral resistance) and elastic tissue.
supports (reinforces) and protects the blood vessel.
has a larger tunica media (thus has more smooth muscle); normally has a fairly round lumen.
has a very thin tunica media (may be hard to see under microscope); may have an irregularly shaped lumen.
double walled serous sac the heart is enclosed in.
walls of the heart are composed primarly of.
lines the 4 chambers of the heart.
serous membrane called endocardium
septum that divides the heart longitudinally.
interatrial or interventricular septum
receives oxygen-poor blood from the body via the superior & inferior venae cavae.
pumps blood to the lungs into the pulmonary trunk.
sends blood to the lungs to be oxygenated.
discharges blood into the aorta.
prevents backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting.
atrioventricular (AV) valves
guards the bases of the 2 large arteries leaving the ventricular chambers.
pulmonary & aortic semilunar valves
sends carbon dioxide-rich blood to its chambers to the lungs to unload carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen & then back to the left side of the heart.
pulmonary circulation pump
carries oxygen-rich blood from the left heart through the body tissues and back to the right heart; supplies the functional blood supply to all body tissues.
systemic circulation pump
contraction of heart chambers during which blood leaves chambers.
relaxation of heart chambers,during which they fill with blood.
events of one complete heartbeat, during which both atria & ventricles contract & then relax & a predictable sequence of changes in blood volume & pressure occur.
average heart beat.
70 to 76 beats per minute
average length of the cardiac cycle.
AV valves shutting; sound
alternating surges of pressure (expansion & then recoil) in an artery that occur with each beat of the left ventricle.
at the side of the neck.
common carotid artery
anterior to the ear, in the temple region.
clench the teeth & palpate the pulse just anterior to the masseter muscle in line with the corner of the mouth.
in the antecubital fossa, at the point where it splits into the radial and ulnar arteries.
at the lateral aspect of the wrist, just above the thumb.
in the groin.
at the back of the knee.
just above the medial malleolus.
posterior tibial artery
on the dorsum of the foot.
dorsalis pedis artery
pressure that blood exerts against the inner blood vessel walls.
pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular ejection (highest in heart)
pressure during ventricular relaxation (lowest in heart)
commonly called blood pressure cuff.
indicated the resumption of blood flow into the forearm.
sounds of Korotkoff
the monosyllables describing the heart sounds are:
the first heart sound is a result of closure of the ___ valves.
the heart chambers that have just filled when you hear the first heart sound are:
the chambers that have just emptied are:
immediately after the second heart sound, the ___ are filling with blood and the ___ are empty:
increased diameter of the arterioles - effect on BP.
increased blood viscosity - effect on BP.
increased cardia output - effect on BP.
hemorrhage - effect on BP.
arteriosclerosis - effect on BP.
increased pulse rate - effect on BP.
blood supply that nourishes the heart is provided by:
right & left coronary arteries
the coronary arteries branch from the base of the aorta & encircle the heart in the:
coronary sulcus (atrioventriciular groove) at the junction of the atria & ventricles
are compressed during systole and fill when the heart is relaxed.
coronary arteries and their branches
drained by several cardiac veins.
empties into the coronary sinus.
an enlarged vessel on the backside of the heart.
empties into the right atrium.
also directly empties into the right atrium.
several anterior cardiac veins
semilunar valves shutting; sound
earlike flaps of tissue projecting from the atrial chambers.
drains the pelvis.
internal iliac vein
receives venous blood from the lower limb.
external iliac vein
longest vein in the body.
great saphenous vein
drains the calf muscle and then empties into the popliteal vein at the knee.
small saphenous vein
receives blood from the posterior abdominal wall.
inferior vena cava
drains into the left renal vein superiorly.
left gonadal vein
drain the kidneys.
receives blood from the adrenal gland on the same side.
right suprarenal vein
drain the head, neck and upper extremities.
right & left brachiocephalic veins
unite to form the superior vena cava.
right & left brachiocephalic veins