muscles.txt

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Author:
larotcharen
ID:
13764
Filename:
muscles.txt
Updated:
2010-04-10 22:33:49
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muscles
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Description:
for muscles test
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  1. Frontal Belly
    • Location: Frontal Bone
    • Action: Raises skin on forehead; raises eyebrows
  2. Occipital Belly
    • Location: Occipital Bone
    • Action: Draws Scalp Back
  3. Obicularis oris
    • Location: Circles mouth; lips
    • Action: Closes and shapes lips
  4. Orbicularis oculi
    • Location: Around Eye
    • Funcion: Closes eye, produces blinking
  5. Masseter
    • Location: Cheek muscle
    • Action: Elevates and protracts mandible, prime mover of lower jaw.
  6. Temporalis
    • Location: Over Temple
    • Action: elevates and retracts mandible
  7. Sternocleido-Mastoideus
    • Location: Behind ear to sternum and clavicle
    • Action: unilateral action, lateral flexion, rotation of head to opposite side.
  8. Rectus Abdominis
    • Location: Up and down center of abdomen, xyphoid process to pubic bone.
    • Action: Flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal wall
  9. External Oblique
    • Location: Ribs to Linea Alba
    • Action: Lateral flexion of vertebral column to opposite side, flexes vertebral column.
  10. Internal Oblique
    • Location: Top of hip to Linea Alba
    • Action: Lateral flexion of vertebral column
  11. Transversus Abdominis
    • Location: Crosswise around belly and back
    • Action: Lateral flexion of vertebrae, flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal wall.
  12. Diaphragm
    • Location: lines bottom of thoracic cavity
    • Action: Contraction lowers diaphragm and increases size of thoracic cavity.
  13. External Intercostals
    • Location: Between ribs � toward outside
    • Action: Elevates ribs during inhalation
  14. Internal Intercostals
    • Location: Between Ribs � toward inside
    • Action: Depresses ribs during forced exhalation
  15. Scalenes
    • Location: Cervicle Vertebrae to 1st rib
    • Action: Flex neck, elevate 1st and 2nd ribs during forced inhalation.
  16. Erector spinae (sacrospinalis)
    • Location: 3 subgroups, total of �9� separate muscles. They are located on the back, on the dorsal surface of the ribs and vertebral column
    • Action: Extend the head and vertebral column.
  17. Scalene complex
    • Location: There are �3� of these muscles. They are located on the front of the vertebral column and ribs
    • Action: flex and rotate the head and to assist in inspiration.
  18. Pectoralis Minor
    • Location: scapula to ribs
    • Action: protracts and depresses scapula
  19. Serratus anterior
    • Location: ribs to medial border of scapula
    • Action: Prime mover in scapula protraction
  20. Trapezius
    • Location: Occipiatl bone to clavical
    • Action: retract, elevate and depress scapula
  21. Levator scapulae
    • Location: Cervical vertebrae to scapula
    • Action: elevates and rotates scapula
  22. Rhomboids (major and minor)
    • Location: Scapula to spine (C2 � T5)
    • Action: elevates and retracts scapula
  23. Pectoralis Major
    • Location: Clavicle to humerus
    • Action: Prive mover of arm; flexion, adducts & rotates medially
  24. Latissimus dorsi (swimmers muscle)
    • Location: Spine to Humerus
    • Action: prime mover of arm, extension, adducts and medially rotates arm
  25. Coracobrachialis
    • Location: Scapula to Humerus
    • Action: adducts and flexes arm
  26. Deltoid
    • Location: Clavicle to humerus
    • Action: flex and medially rotate arm, abduction, extend and laterally rotate arm.
  27. Supraspinatus
    • Location: Scapula (suprascapular fossa) to humerus
    • Action: abducts arm
  28. Infraspinatus
    • Location: bottom of scapula to humerus
    • Action: adducst and laterally rotates arm
  29. Teres Major
    • Location: Scapula to humerus
    • Action: extends adducts and medially rotates arm
  30. Teres Minor
    • Location: Scapula to Humerous
    • Action: adduct and lateral rotate
  31. Biceps Brachii
    • Location: Scapula to radius
    • Action: flex forearm, supinator
  32. Brachialis
    • Location: humerus to ulna
    • Action: primary flexor of forearm
  33. Triceps Brachii
    • Location: Humerus to ulna
    • Action: Primary extensor of forearm, extends and adducts
  34. Anconeus
    • Location: humerus to ulna
    • Action: extends forearm
  35. Brachioradialis
    • Location: Humerus to radius
    • Action: flexes forearm
  36. Supinator
    • Location: Humerus/Ulna to radius
    • Action: Supinates forearm
  37. Pronator teres
    • Location: Humerus/Ulna to Radius
    • Action: pronates forearm
  38. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Location: Humerus to base of metacarpals
    • Action: flexes wrist, adducts hand
  39. Palmaris Longus
    • Location: Humerus to hand
    • Action: weak wrist flexor
  40. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • Location: Humerus to base of metacarpals
    • Action: extends wrist, abducts hand
  41. Thenar eminence
    • Location: Fleshy mass at base of thumb
    • Action: flexes and abducts thumb
  42. Intermediate (midpalmar) muscles
    • Location: Palm of hand
    • Action: flexes and abducts fingers 2 � 5
  43. Hypothenar eminence
    • Location: fleshy mass at base oflittle finger
    • Action: flexes and abducts finger 5
  44. Psoas Major
    • Location: vertebrae to Femur
    • Action: Flexes Thigh
  45. Iliacus
    • Location: Pelvic girdle (iliac fossa) to femur
    • Action: flexes thigh
  46. Gluteus Maximus
    • Location: Ilium to Femur
    • Action: Extends Thigh
  47. Gluteus medius
    • Location: Ilium to Femur
    • Action: abducts thigh
  48. Gluteus Minimus
    • Location: Ilium - Femur
    • Action: abducts thigh
  49. Tensor fasciae latae
    • Location: down side of thigh
    • Action: abducts thigh
  50. Adductor longus
    • Location: pubic symphysis to femur
    • Action: Adducts thigh
  51. Adductor Brevis
    • Location: Under Adductor Longus
    • Action: Adducts Thigh
  52. Adductor magnus
    • Location: Medial thigh
    • Action: adducts thigh
  53. Piriformis
    • Location: Sacram to femur
    • Action: laterally rotates thigh
  54. Obturator internus
    • Location: Pelvic Area
    • Action: Laterally rotates thigh
  55. Pectineus
    • Location: Pelvic Area
    • Action: adducts thigh
  56. Rectus Femoris
    • Location: Center of thigh
    • Action: extends leg, flexes thigh
  57. Vastus lateralis
    • Location: Lateral side of thigh
    • Action: extends leg
  58. Vastus Medialis
    • Location: medial side of thigh
    • Action: extends leg
  59. Vastus intermedius
    • Location: between lateralis and medialis under rectus femoris
    • Action: extends leg
  60. Biceps femoris (part of hamstrings)
    • Location: back of thigh
    • Action: rotates let laterally, extends thigh & flexes leg medially
  61. Semimembranosus (part of hamstrings)
    • Location: Back of thigh
    • Action: rotates leg laterally, extends thigh and flexes leg. Rotates leg medially
  62. Semitendinosus(part of hamstrings)(T = Top)
    • Location: Back of thigh
    • Action: rotates leg medially
  63. Gastrocnemius
    • Location: longest muscle of the calf
    • Action: flexes leg
  64. Soleus
    • Location: back of calf under gastrocnemius
    • Action: Flexes Foot
  65. Fibularis (peroneus) longus
    • Location: back of calf
    • Action: everts foot
  66. Tibialis anterior
    • Location: along shin
    • Action: inverts foot
  67. Tibialis posterior
    • Location: calf
    • Action: inverts foot
  68. The corrugator
    Frowning or sorrow muscle (corner of eyebrows down)
  69. The Orbicularis Oris
    Kissing Muscle (around mouth)
  70. The Buccinator
    Trumpeter muscle (in cheeks)
  71. The frontalis
    • Surprise Muscle
    • (eyebrows up)
  72. The masseter
    Chewing Muscle
  73. The boxer�s muscle
    Serratis amteropr
  74. The Latissimus Dorsi
    Widest or broadest muscle of the back
  75. The Sartorius muscle
    • Tailors muscle (longest muscle of the body)
    • Outer portion of pelvic girdle, cuts across thigh
  76. The major muscles on the back of the thigh: Biceps femoris, semimbranosus; semitendinosus
    Hamstrings
  77. The gastrocnemius and soleus
    Calf of the leg
  78. The tendon of the gastrocnemius and soleus; attaches to the calcaneum (heel) bone
    • Achilles tendon
    • (calcaneal tendon)
  79. 4 deep muscles that surround, stabilize and move the shoulder joint:
    Subscapularis
    Supraspinatus
    Infraspinatus
    Teres minor
    Rotator (musculotendinous) cuff
  80. Muscle Tissue Characteristics
    • 1. Excitability: Notable response to stimuli
    • 2. Contractility: Shortens
    • 3. Extensibility: Can Stretch
    • 4. Elasticity: Returns to original shape
  81. Muscle Tissue Function
    • 1. Body Movement: Muscles contract and pull to move bones
    • 2. Maintenance of posture: Specific skeletal muscles stabilize joints
    • 3. Temperature regulation: Energy required for muscle tissue contraction generates heat which maintains body temperature.
    • 4. Support and movement of materials: Digestive system
    • 5. Support: Protection of organs and support their weight within the abdominopelvic cavity
  82. Epimysium
    Around entire muscle organ
  83. Fascicule (fascicles)
    A group or bundle of muscle fibers
  84. Perimysium
    Surrounds or defines a fascicle
  85. Endomysium
    Around each muscle cell
  86. Sarcolemma
    Cell membrane of muscle cell
  87. Muscle cell, muscle fiber, or myofiber
    Surrounded by endomysium
  88. Types of muscle tissue
    • � Skeletal, striated, or voluntary
    • � Cardiac or heart
    • � Smooth, non-striated, visceral or involuntary
  89. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
    • Fascia: Flat or membranous sheet of connective tissue
    • � Superficial fascia: Also called �hypodermis� or �subcutaneous� tissue
    • � Deep Fascia: Is the type associated with muscles � it binds and separates muscles, strengthens them, and allows for movement. It gives rise to the epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, tendons, aponeuroses and tendon sheaths associated with skeletal muscles.
  90. Tendon
    End of muscle to muscle
  91. Aponeurosis
    Broad flat tendon
  92. Origin
    Where muscle attaches to bone � doesn�t move
  93. Insertion
    Attaches to the moving part
  94. Gaster(belly)
    Main part of muscle
  95. Blood and nerve supply to skeletal muscles
    Typically one artery and one or two veins with a nerve; each muscle cell in close contact with one or more capillaries; each muscle fiber innervated by a nerve process
  96. Muscle cell (fiber) or myofiber
    • Single muscle cell
    • Function: Metabolic activities; contraction
  97. Sarcolemma
    • Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber
    • Function: Surrounds muscle fiber and regulates entry and exit of materials
  98. Sarcoplasm
    • Cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
    • Function: Site of metabolic processesfor normal muscle fiber activities
  99. Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • Series of membrane enclosed channels; comparable to E.R.
    • Function: stores calcium ions needed for muscle contraction
  100. T-Tubule (transverse tubule)
    At right angles to long axis of cell; opens to outside of sarcolemma � thus contains extracellular fluid
  101. Triad
    • Consists of T-Tubule and adjacent terminal cisternae
    • (see sketch in workbook p109)
  102. Myofibrils
    Consists of (3) types of myofilaments
  103. Thin Myofilamints
    • Play a large part in contraction
    • Can change shape
  104. Actin (Thin)
    Contractile; have myosin binding sites; bean or pea shaped; twisted together into a helix
  105. Tropomyosin
    Cover myosin binding sites on actin in a relaxed muscle fiber
  106. Troponin
    Holds Tropomyosin strands together
  107. Tropomyosin-troponin complex
    Tropomyosin attached to troponin
  108. Thick myofilaments
    Twice as large as thin. Assembled from budles of myosin
  109. Myosin
    Looks like 2 golfclubs twisted together; a �motor protein� � uses ATP to push or pull molecules
  110. Cross bridges (myosin heads)
    The �golf club� heads; have actin binding sites
  111. Structural proteins
    Not as abundant as contractile proteins (actin and myosin); approx a dozen types: for alignment, stability, elasticity, extensibility, etc. of myofibrils
  112. Titin (connectin)
    Attaches things together. i.e. anchors thick filaments to the z line (disc) helps recoil after contraction
  113. Sarcomere
    Stack or unit of myofilaments; from z line to z line
  114. Z lines (discs)
    Define sarcomere; pass through i band
  115. A(anisotropic) band
    Thick and thin myofilaments � overlapping
  116. i (isotropic) band
    Thin myofilaments only
  117. H zone
    Thick myfilaments only
  118. M line
    Middle of H zone

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