Microbiology Exam 2
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Microbiology Exam 2
Exam 2 micro flashcards University of Toledo
What R the two parts if adaptive immunity?
Humoral immunity & Cell-Mediated immunity
Which adaptive immunity is an antibody?
Primary lymphoid organs
Bone Marrow & Thymus
3 parts of lymphoid system
Primary lymphoid organs
2ndary lymphoid organs
Where do B cells mature?
Bone Marrow (B Cells mature in Bone Marrow)
Where do T cells mature?
Thymus (T Cells matue in Thymus)
What happens once cells mature?
Cells leave primary lymphoid for 2ndary
T or F spleen cleanses blood
T or F lymph nodes cleanse lymph fluid
What R 2ndary lymphoid organs?
Sites where Lymphocytes gather to encounter antigens
wut is the role of lymphatic vessels?
Carry lymph to body tissues
Molecule that specifically interacts w/ an antibody or lymphocyte
Immunogen / Antigen
T or F antigens R MOSTLY protien
Wut is the structure of an antibody?
Monomer / 4 chains of amino acids held together by disulfide bonds
T or F Constant region is known as Fc region?
Wut is the Fc Constant region used 4?
To determine class (Fc = Class)
T or F the Variable region binds to a specific Ag
That is the name of the Variable region that binds 2 each Ab
Fab region (Fab = Antigen Binding)
First Ab to respond2infection w/ 10day time period
Only Ab that can be formed by the Fetus is...
IgM structure in circulation
Pentamer (M has 5 points)
Mom (M) responds2infection 1st
what is the majority of Ab's?
Dominant Ab (80-85%) in circulation w/ 21day time period
Only Ab that can cross the placenta
Ab of memory
Ab found mostly in secretions (w/ 6day time period)
Structure is a monomer in serum; & DIMER in secretions
Ab this is the Maturation of antibody response
IgD (D for mature domanent)
Ab active in type 1 allergic reaction
Ab barely detectable in circulation
Cloning ofspecific antibodies
Specific response of mature B cells to an sntigens epitopes best describes....
Repeated cycles of cell division generates population of copied antibodies best describes...
Clonal expansion: Imature
Simple B Cell
Clonal expansion: Naive
B cell contacts an antigen but is clueless
Clonal expansion: Activated
B cell encounters antigen & makes Fab arms
Clonal expansion: Effector plasma cells or Memory
Makes antibodies 2b released n2circulation or remebers atigen
Prevents toxin from interacting w/ cell
Antibody bonding to cellular structures to interfere w/ function
Immobilization & prevention of Adherence
Clumping of bacterial cell by specific antibody so bacteria R mo easily phagocytized
Aggutination & Precipitation
Coating of bacteria w/ antibody 2enhance phagocytosis
Antibody bonding triggers classical pathway
Multiple antibodies bind a cell which becomes target 4certain cells
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
T or F in primary response of Ab-Ag binding there is a lag period of 10-12days
In wut response does Activated B cell grow rapidly & diferentiate into increasing #'s of plasma cells as long as antigen is present
What is the net result of primary response?
Slow steady increase in antibody titer
In Ab-Ag binding wut response has memory cells that often eliminate invaders b4 noticible harm is done?
T or F Affinity maturation is a form of natural selection that ouccurs amung proliferating B cells
Affinity maturation does wut 2 Bcells?
Makes them mo specific 2 antigen for higher quality response
B cells R programd 2differentiate n2plasma cells that secrete IgM antib's, but the b cell switched 2cells that secrete IgG. This is called...
T or F T cells never produce antibodies
In cell mediated ammunity antigen must b presented BY WHO for T cell receptor?
Antigen Presenting Cell
T cell receptor has wut kind of binding site?
Ag - Major Histocompatability
MHC stands for...
Major Histocompatibility Complex
T or F Infection is definded as colonized organisms have parasitic relationship w/ host
No noticable adverse effects
disease causes characteristic signs & symptoms
Effects experienced by the patient that are subjective...
Effects that can be observed through examination objectivly...
Organism that causes disease in a otherwise healthy person...
Microbes that cause diease when a body's defense is down...
pathogens disease causeing ability...
4 characteristics of infectious disease
Course of infectious disease
Duration of symptoms (Illness)
Distribution of pathogen
T or F Diseases w/ small infectious dose R easier 2spread than larger 1's
# of organisms required to establish infection is wut of the 4 characteristics of infectious disease?
1. Infectious Dose
# of organism required to infect 50% of the pop.
Course of infectious disease includes...
Course of infectious disease: Time between introduction of organism 2onset symptoms
Course of infectious disease: signs & symptooms of disease appear
Course of infectious disease: Period of recuperation and recovery
Duration of symtoms: symptoms have rapid onset and last a short time
Duration of symtoms: Chronic
Symptoms develop slowly & persist
Duration of symtoms: Latent
Infection never completly elimnated & may bcum reactive
Distribution of pathogen: Infection limited to a small area
Distribution of pathogen: Toxins circulating in blood
Distribution of pathogen: Viruses circulating in blood
Distribution of pathogen: Acute life-threatining illness caused by infectious agaent or its products circulating in blood
In order 2 cause disease, pathogens must follow a series of steps that include...
Adherence - bind 2 host cell receptors
Colonization - bacteria bcum estasblishd & multiply
Deliver effector molecules - bacteria deliver molecules directly 2host & induce changes 2recieving cell
Most common type of Acquired Immunity
Naturally acquired active immunity (Natural + Active (energy))
Least common type of Acquired Immunity
Artificically acquired passive immunity (Artificial = lab made + passive = no energy)
Ab through transplacental or via breast milk
Natually Acquired Passive immunity
Injection of Ag (vacination) 2 produce Ab
Artificial acquired active immunity
Which type of immunity is known as an anit serum?
Artificially acquired passive
Type of vaccine: Live, weakened form of pathogen
Type of vaccine: Unable 2replicate in vaccinated individule
Attenuated Vaccine Advantages
Induce long lasting immunity
Can spread 2 un immunized individuals
Attenuated Vaccine Disadvantages
Could cause disease n immunocompromised ppl
T or F Polio, MMR, & yellow fever vaccines R examples of Attenuated vaccines
Inactivated vaccines advantage
Cannot cause disease, immunogenic not pathogenic
Inactivated vaccines disadvantage
Magnitude of immune response is limited
Disease transmitted from one host to another
The suitable enviornment that a pathgogen must have to live is called...
T or F reservoir is the most important part of epidemiology
Disease that does not spread from one host 2another
Examples of Non communicable (not pasted from host 2 host)
Tetenus, Flesh eating disease, plaque on teeth
Wut causes a non communicable disease?
A individules own normal flora
Number of cases of illness divided by population at risk...
Population that dies 4rm disease...
Number of new cases per time period...
total # of existing cases...
Match these words Worldwide, Endemic, Region, Area, Pandemic, epidemic
Endemic - Area
epidemic - region
Pandemic - Worldwide
Put the step of spreading a disease in order...
Portal of Exit
Portals of Entry
This reservior is difficult & nearly immposible 2eliminate...
T or F there can be non-human animal reservoirs
Human Reservoirs can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Wut is the difference?
: Obvious source of infectious agents
: Harbor pathogen w/no ill effects
Which reservior is the worst?
What r portals of exit?
A orifice or surface of the body that is used as a exit from one host 2another
Modes of transmission
Direct/Indirect contact, air, food, water, vectors
In Horizontal transmission how is pathogen passed 4rm reservoir 2host?
Via contact w/ food, water, or living agent
In Vertical transmission how is pathogen passed 4rm reservoir 2host?
During breast feeding (From mother 2offspring)
T or F Colonization is a prequisite for causing disease
Name some major portals of entry
Eyes, Broken skin, Respiratory tract, Blood
Three fators that influence epidemiology of disease
Dose (lower dose worse than higher)
Incubation Period (Longer period, greater spead)
Population (certain pops mo susceptible2diff. illness)
Wut is herd immunity?
If enuf ppl r vaccinated the whole population can b immune
Wut r the 6 popula. charact. dat influence occurence of diease?
Immunity - General Health
Age - Gender
Religion - Genetics
Epidemiologists investigate disease outbreak 2 determine...
Route of Transmission
Corss Sectional Studies
Descriptive epidemiology studies define wut characteristics?
: Profile of ill persons
: general contact sites, identifies poss. reservoirs
: Rapid rise suggests common source
Wut do Analytical epidemiology studies determine?
Which potential factors from descriptive studies r relevent
Significance of cross-sectional epidemiology studies
Survey range of ppl 2c the degree of the # of characteris.
Describe Retrospective epidemiology Studies
Done following outbreak, compare actions & evens surrounding outbreak
Describe Prospective epidemiology Studies (Academia)
Look ahead 2c if retrospective risk factors predict tendency 2develop disease (hypothesis)
T or F experimental epidemiology Studies mostly used 2determine effectiveness of prevention/treatment & Double blinds r used 2avoid bias
Wut r Nosocomial Infections?
Hospital acquired infections
Factors that determine which agent r responsible for nosocomial infections
Length of exposure
Manner of exposure
Virulence & # of organism
State of host defenses
Types of Antimicrobial drugs
Antibiotics (synthesized/secreted by a tru organism)
Semisynthetics (chemically altered for new character.)
synthetics (lab made)
Features of Antimicrobial drugs
Spectrum of Activity
Tissue distrib. / metabolism / excresion
Features of Antimicrobial Drugs: Selective Toxicity
Theraputic Index (High theraputic index = less toxic 2patient)
Features of Antimicrobial Drugs: Antimicrobial Action
Bacteriostatic drugs INHIBIT bacterial growth
Bacteriocidal drugs KILL bacteris
Features of Antimicrobial Drugs: Spectrum of Activity
: targets limited range of bacteria (gram + or - )
: targets wide range of bacteria (gram + & - )
Features of Antimicrobial Drugs: Tissue distrib. / metabolism / excresion
Elimination expressed in halflife which dictates frequency of dosage
2 teatments work 2gether
2treatments work against eachotha
2treatments compliment eachother
T or F Antimicrobial drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis have very high threaputic index
Wut does the inhibition of protien synthesis target?
Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis targets wut?
enzymes nessacary 4 DNA replication
Interference wit cell membrane integrity causes wut?
Chage in permiability which leads 2 leakage of cell components & cell death