individual patriarchs as bearers of divine revelation
What was the focus of Exodus?
Israel as a nation, delivered from Egyptian bondage and led to Mt. Sinai, where through Moses it enters into a covenant with God
When did the events in Exodus occur?
13th century BC, during the reign of Ramses II (1300-1280 BC)
When was the divine name revealed to Moses?
When Moses was at the burning bush
What was the name God revealed to Moses?
"I AM WHO I AM"
What is a "Theophany"?
A radical in-breaking of God into history; a remarkable self-revelation of God. It comes from two Greek words, meaning "God" and "to appear," and therefore designates an "appearance" of God.
What is the name for YHWH?
Tetragrammaton, a Greek term meaning "having four letters"
Out of reverence, what was pronounced instead of YHWH?
Adonai, meaning "my Lord." It was, in the Greek Septuagint, rendered as Kyrios or "Lord."
Where did the word YHWH most likely come from?
an archaic form of the verb "to be", or hwh (hawah). YHWH probably means "He is," or "He who is," or "He who causes all things to be."
How did the rendition "Jehovah" come about?
The Masoretic scholars dovetailed the vowelf from "Adonai" into the consonants YHWH as a reminder to pronounce "Adonai" whenever the Tetragrammaton appeared. Some groups later mistakenly used those vowels in their attempted pronunciation of YHWH.
What was the most basic confession of faith of the Israelites?
"YHWH He is the God"
What was the first demand made by Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh? What was Pharaoh's response?
They asked Pharaoh to let the Israelites go for a three days' journey into the wilderness to sacrifice to the LORD. Pharaoh responded by punishing the Israelites by ceasing to provide straw.
How did God renew his promise and show the people that he is their God?
by delivering them from the bondage
The Ten Plagues
water of the Nile turned to blood
swarms of flies
death of the Egyptians livestock
thunder and hail
death of Egypt's first-born
Why could the Israelites not offer sacrifice in the land of Egypt?
They couldn't do so because they would sacrifice animals abominable to the Egyptians and thus would be stoned.
What does the Passover ritual celebrate?
the newfound freedom of the Israelites
the death of the first-born of Egypt
Why was there no leavened bread to be found?
Because the Israelites left in such a hurry, their bread did not have time to rise
What is to be offered to the Lord as a reminder of the death of the first-born of Egypt?
first-born of the animals
first-born of human beings
What verse may be the oldest one in the Bible?
The Songs of Moses and Miriam
Where did the Israelites grumble against the Lord?
Marah--the water was bitter
wilderness of Sin--there was no food, but the Lord gave them quails and manna from heaven
Meribah, at the rock of Horeb
What does "etiological" story mean?
story that seeks to explain the causes of something
Three opinions on the miracles reported in Exodus
They are completely made up "origin stories" or etiological accounts.
There is a minimal factual basis for it with a lot of exaggerations.
There is a maximal factual basis.
How can we explain the plagues and the crossing of the Red Sea?
The first nine plagues and the crossing of the Red Sea have natural explanations in conditions found even today in Egypt. The miracle is in the timing of these extraordinary but possible natural events.