9.13-9.15

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DesLee26
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137679
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9.13-9.15
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2012-02-25 18:57:34
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Anatomy Physiology
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Seniors
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  1. Brain
    A. What is the brain?
    B. The brain can be divided into the __ (__), the __ (__), the __ (__) and the __ (__).
    • A. The brain is the largest, most complex portion of the NS
    • B. cerebrum (largest portion and associated with higher mental functions); diencephalon (processes sensory input), cerebellum (coordinates muscular activity); brain stem (coordinates and regulates visceral activities)
  2. C. Functions of the Cerebrum
    1) Consists of two large masses called __.
    a. __ separates __ and __ hemispheres.
    b. A deep bridge of nerve fibers called the __ connects the two hemispheres.
    c. __ separates the __ from the __.
    • 1) cerebral hemispheres (right and left)
    • a. longitudinal fissure; right and left
    • b. corpus collosum
    • c. transverse fissure; cerebrum; cerebellum
  3. C. Functions of the Cerebrum
    2. __ is a thin layer of gray matter that constitutes the outermost portion of the cerebrum.
    a. Ridges on the surface are called __. The indents are called __.

    b. Masses of __ located under the __ are made up of __ that connect the __ of the __ with other parts of the NS.
    3. Each hemisphere is divided into __ lobes.
    • 2) Cerebral cortex
    • a. convolutions (gyri)/ sulci
    • b. white matter/ cortex/ myelinated fibers/ neurons/ cortex
    • 3) Four
  4. a. Frontal Lobe
    1) Motor areas control movements of the __ (areas are crossed)
    i) __ is responsible for the muscular actions of the mouth, tongue, and larynx that make __ possible.
    2) Association areas carry on higher intellectual procedures such as __, __, __, and __.
    • 1) voluntary skeletal muscle
    • i) Broca's Area/ speech
    • 2) concentration, planning, complex problem solving, and judging consequences of behavior
  5. b. Parietal Lobes
    1) __ separates the __ and __ lobes.
    2) Sensory areas are responsible for __ (areas are crossed) __, __, __ and __ from the skin.
    3) Association areas function in __.
    • 1) central sulcus/ frontal/ parietal
    • 2) sensing (areas are crossed) temperature, touch, pressure, and pain
    • 3) understanding speech ability to use words to express thoughts and feelings
  6. c. Temporal Lobes
    1) Sensory areas are responsible for __.
    2) Association areas are used in __.
    • 1) hearing and smelling
    • 2) interpretation of sensory experiences, memory of visual scenes, and music
  7. d. Occipital Lobe:
    1) Sensory areas are __.
    2) Association areas function in __.
    • 1) responsible for vision
    • 2) combining visual images with other sensory experiences
  8. Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid:
    1) The __ are a series of connected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brain stem.
    2) The __ are continuous with the __ of the __, and are filled with __.
    3) __ has __ as well as __ functions.
    • 1) ventricles
    • 2) ventricles/ central canal/ spinal cord/ cerebrospinal fluid
    • 3) cerebrospinal fluid/ nutritive/ protective (cushioning)
  9. Diencephalon
    1) The __ lies above the __ and contains the __ and __.
    2) The __ functions in __ and __ arriving from other parts of the NS, performing the services of both the __ and __.
    3) The __ maintains __ by regulating a wide variety of __ and by linking the __ with the NS.
    a) The __ regulates __ and __, __, __, __, __, __ and __.
    4) The __, in the area of the __, controls __ and __.
    a) By generating __ and __ about experiences, the __ guides behavior that may enhance the chance of __.
    • 1) diencephalon/ brain stem/ thalamus/ hypothalamus
    • 2) thalamus/ sorting and directing sensory information/ messenger/ editor
    • 3) hypothalamus/ homeostasis/ visceral activities/ endocrine system
    • a) hypothalamus/ heart rate and arterial BP, BT, water and electrolyte balance, hunger and body weight, movements and secretions of the digestive tract, growth and reproductio, sleep and wakefulness
    • 4) limbic system/ diencephalon/ emotional experience/ expression
    • a) pleasant or unpleasant feelings/ limbic system/ survival
  10. Brain Stem
    1) The brain stem, consisting of the __, __,, and __, lies at the base of the _, and c onnects the __ to the __.
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
    • cerebrum
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  11. Midbrain
    a) The __, located between the __ and __, contains bundles of __ that convey __ to and from higher parts of the brain, and masses of __ that serve as __.
    b. The midbrain contains centers for __.
    • a) midbrain, diencephalon, pons, myelinated nerve fibers, impulses, gray matter, reflex centers
    • b. auditory and visual reflexes
  12. Pons
    a) The pons lies between the __ and the __.
    b) What does he do?
    • midbrain and medulla oblongata
    • transmits impulses between the brain and spinal cord, and contains centers that regulate the rate and depth of breathing
  13. Medulla Oblongata
    a) The medulla oblongata does what?
    b. It also houses __ that control __, including the __ that controls __, the __ for __, and the __ that works, along with the __, to control __.
    c. Other __ in the medulla oblongata are associated with __, __, __, and __.
    • a) transmits all ascending and descending impulses between the brain adn spinal cord
    • b. nuclei/ visceral functions/ cardiac center that controls HR/ vasomotor center for BP control/ respiratory center/ pons/ rate and depth of breathing
    • c. nuclei/ coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting
  14. Cerebellum
    1) The cerebellum is made up of two hemispheres connected by a __.
    2. A thin layer of __ lies outside a core of __.
    3. The cerebellum functions to integrate __ about the position of __ and __.
    • vermis
    • gray matter/ white matter
    • sensory information/ body parts/ coordinates skeletal muscle activity and maintains posture
  15. Peripheral Nervous System
    A. What does the PNS consists of?
    B. The PNS is made up of the __ and the _.
    C. Cranial Nerves
    1) __ of cranial nerves arise from the __ of the brain, most of which are __ nerves.
    D. Spinal Nerves
    1) __ pairs of __ nerves make up the spinal nerves.
    2) Spinal nerves are grouped according to the level from with they __ and are numbered in __, beginning with those in the __.
    • A. cranial and spinal nerves that arise from the CNS and travel to the remainder of the body
    • B. Somatic NS (oversees voluntary activities)/ Autonomic NS (controls involuntary activities)
    • C. 12/ underside/ mixed
    • 1) 31/ mixed
    • 2) arise/ sequence/ cervical region
  16. Autonomic Nervous System
    A. The autonomic nervous system has the task of maintaining __ of __ activities without __,
    B. General Characteristics
    1) The autonomic nervous system includes two divisios the __ and __, which exert opposing effects on target organs.
    a. The _ operates under normal conditions.
    b. The __ operates under conditions of stress or emergency.
    • A. homeostasis/ visceral/ conscious effort
    • 1) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
    • a. parasympathetic
    • b. sympathetic

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