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A. What is the brain?
B. The brain can be divided into the __ (__), the __ (__), the __ (__) and the __ (__).
- A. The brain is the largest, most complex portion of the NS
- B. cerebrum (largest portion and associated with higher mental functions); diencephalon (processes sensory input), cerebellum (coordinates muscular activity); brain stem (coordinates and regulates visceral activities)
C. Functions of the Cerebrum
1) Consists of two large masses called __.
a. __ separates __ and __ hemispheres.
b. A deep bridge of nerve fibers called the __ connects the two hemispheres.
c. __ separates the __ from the __.
- 1) cerebral hemispheres (right and left)
- a. longitudinal fissure; right and left
- b. corpus collosum
- c. transverse fissure; cerebrum; cerebellum
C. Functions of the Cerebrum
2. __ is a thin layer of gray matter that constitutes the outermost portion of the cerebrum.
a. Ridges on the surface are called __. The indents are called __.
b. Masses of __ located under the __ are made up of __ that connect the __ of the __ with other parts of the NS.
3. Each hemisphere is divided into __ lobes.
- 2) Cerebral cortex
- a. convolutions (gyri)/ sulci
- b. white matter/ cortex/ myelinated fibers/ neurons/ cortex
- 3) Four
a. Frontal Lobe
1) Motor areas control movements of the __ (areas are crossed)
i) __ is responsible for the muscular actions of the mouth, tongue, and larynx that make __ possible.
2) Association areas carry on higher intellectual procedures such as __, __, __, and __.
- 1) voluntary skeletal muscle
- i) Broca's Area/ speech
- 2) concentration, planning, complex problem solving, and judging consequences of behavior
b. Parietal Lobes
1) __ separates the __ and __ lobes.
2) Sensory areas are responsible for __ (areas are crossed) __, __, __ and __ from the skin.
3) Association areas function in __.
- 1) central sulcus/ frontal/ parietal
- 2) sensing (areas are crossed) temperature, touch, pressure, and pain
- 3) understanding speech ability to use words to express thoughts and feelings
c. Temporal Lobes
1) Sensory areas are responsible for __.
2) Association areas are used in __.
- 1) hearing and smelling
- 2) interpretation of sensory experiences, memory of visual scenes, and music
d. Occipital Lobe:
1) Sensory areas are __.
2) Association areas function in __.
- 1) responsible for vision
- 2) combining visual images with other sensory experiences
Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid:
1) The __ are a series of connected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brain stem.
2) The __ are continuous with the __ of the __, and are filled with __.
3) __ has __ as well as __ functions.
- 1) ventricles
- 2) ventricles/ central canal/ spinal cord/ cerebrospinal fluid
- 3) cerebrospinal fluid/ nutritive/ protective (cushioning)
1) The __ lies above the __ and contains the __ and __.
2) The __ functions in __ and __ arriving from other parts of the NS, performing the services of both the __ and __.
3) The __ maintains __ by regulating a wide variety of __ and by linking the __ with the NS.
a) The __ regulates __ and __, __, __, __, __, __ and __.
4) The __, in the area of the __, controls __ and __.
a) By generating __ and __ about experiences, the __ guides behavior that may enhance the chance of __.
- 1) diencephalon/ brain stem/ thalamus/ hypothalamus
- 2) thalamus/ sorting and directing sensory information/ messenger/ editor
- 3) hypothalamus/ homeostasis/ visceral activities/ endocrine system
- a) hypothalamus/ heart rate and arterial BP, BT, water and electrolyte balance, hunger and body weight, movements and secretions of the digestive tract, growth and reproductio, sleep and wakefulness
- 4) limbic system/ diencephalon/ emotional experience/ expression
- a) pleasant or unpleasant feelings/ limbic system/ survival
1) The brain stem, consisting of the __, __,, and __, lies at the base of the _, and c onnects the __ to the __.
- medulla oblongata
- spinal cord
a) The __, located between the __ and __, contains bundles of __ that convey __ to and from higher parts of the brain, and masses of __ that serve as __.
b. The midbrain contains centers for __.
- a) midbrain, diencephalon, pons, myelinated nerve fibers, impulses, gray matter, reflex centers
- b. auditory and visual reflexes
a) The pons lies between the __ and the __.
b) What does he do?
- midbrain and medulla oblongata
- transmits impulses between the brain and spinal cord, and contains centers that regulate the rate and depth of breathing
a) The medulla oblongata does what?
b. It also houses __ that control __, including the __ that controls __, the __ for __, and the __ that works, along with the __, to control __.
c. Other __ in the medulla oblongata are associated with __, __, __, and __.
- a) transmits all ascending and descending impulses between the brain adn spinal cord
- b. nuclei/ visceral functions/ cardiac center that controls HR/ vasomotor center for BP control/ respiratory center/ pons/ rate and depth of breathing
- c. nuclei/ coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting
1) The cerebellum is made up of two hemispheres connected by a __.
2. A thin layer of __ lies outside a core of __.
3. The cerebellum functions to integrate __ about the position of __ and __.
- gray matter/ white matter
- sensory information/ body parts/ coordinates skeletal muscle activity and maintains posture
Peripheral Nervous System
A. What does the PNS consists of?
B. The PNS is made up of the __ and the _.
C. Cranial Nerves
1) __ of cranial nerves arise from the __ of the brain, most of which are __ nerves.
D. Spinal Nerves
1) __ pairs of __ nerves make up the spinal nerves.
2) Spinal nerves are grouped according to the level from with they __ and are numbered in __, beginning with those in the __.
- A. cranial and spinal nerves that arise from the CNS and travel to the remainder of the body
- B. Somatic NS (oversees voluntary activities)/ Autonomic NS (controls involuntary activities)
- C. 12/ underside/ mixed
- 1) 31/ mixed
- 2) arise/ sequence/ cervical region
Autonomic Nervous System
A. The autonomic nervous system has the task of maintaining __ of __ activities without __,
B. General Characteristics
1) The autonomic nervous system includes two divisios the __ and __, which exert opposing effects on target organs.
a. The _ operates under normal conditions.
b. The __ operates under conditions of stress or emergency.
- A. homeostasis/ visceral/ conscious effort
- 1) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
- a. parasympathetic
- b. sympathetic