Music History Exam #1

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Music History Exam #1
2012-02-27 10:48:35
music history

Music History Exam #1
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  1. Agrements
    ornament in French music, usually indicated by a sign, used on harpischord
  2. clavecin
    french term for harpischord
  3. clavecinists
    a person who performs on or composes works for the clavecin(harpischord)
  4. style luthe/style brise
    broken or arpeggiated texture in keyboard and lute music from 17th century france. the technique originated with the lute, and the figuration was transferred to the harpsichord
  5. binary form
    a form comprised of two complementary sections, each of which is repeated. THe first section usually ends on the dominant or relative major, although it may end on the tonic or other key. the second section returns to the tonic
  6. suite
    a set of pieces that are linked together into a single work. during the baroque, a suite usually referred to a set stylized dance piece
  7. unmeasured prelude
    a french baroque keyboard genre, usually the first movement in a suite, whose nonmetric notation gives a feeling of improvisation
  8. allemande
    highly stylized dance in binary form, in moderately fast quadruple meter with almost continuous movement, beginnin with an upbeat. Popular during the renaissance and baroque appearing often as the first dance in a suite
  9. courante
    a dance in binary form, in compound meter at a moderate tempo and with an upbeat, featured as a standard movement of the aroque dance suite
  10. sarabande
    a slow dance in binary form and in triple meter, often emphasizing the second beat: a standard movement of a suite
  11. gigue
    stylized dance movement of a standard baroque suite, in binary form, marked by fast compound meter such as 6/8 or 12/8 with wide melodic leaps and continuous triplets. The two sections usually both begin with imitation
  12. gavotte
    baroque duple time dance in binary form with a half-measure upbeat and a characteristic rhythm of short-short-long
  13. minuet
    dance in moderate triple meter, two-measure units, and binary form
  14. da capo aria
    ARIA FORM with two sections. The first section is repeated after the second section's close, which carries the instruction da capo (Italian, 'from the head'), creating an ABA FORM.
  15. serenata
    (Italian, 'serenade') A semidramatic piece for several singers and small ORCHESTRA, usually written for a special occasion.
  16. sonata da camera
    BAROQUE SONATA, usually a SUITE of stylized DANCES, scored for one or more TREBLE instruments and CONTINUO.
  17. chamber sonata
    BAROQUE SONATA, usually a SUITE of stylized DANCES, scored for one or more TREBLE instruments and CONTINUO.
  18. sonata da chiesa
    BAROQUE instrumental work intended for performance in church; usually in four MOVEMENTS-slow-fast-slow-fast-and scored for one or more TREBLE instruments and CONTINUO.
  19. church sonata
    BAROQUE instrumental work intended for performance in church; usually in four MOVEMENTS-slow-fast-slow-fast-and scored for one or more TREBLE instruments and CONTINUO.
  20. trio sonata
    Common instrumental GENRE during the BAROQUE PERIOD, a SONATA for two TREBLE instruments (usually VIOLINS) above a BASSO CONTINUO. A performance featured four or more players if more than one was used for the continuo part.
  21. walking bass
    BASS line in BAROQUE music-and later in JAZZ-that moves steadily and continuously.
  22. concerto
    (from Italian concertare, 'to reach agreement') (1) In the seventeenth century, ENSEMBLE of instruments or of voices with one or more instruments, or a work for such an ensemble. (2) COMPOSITION in which one or more solo instruments (or instrumental group) contrasts with an ORCHESTRAL ENSEMBLE. See also SOLO CONCERTO, CONCERTO GROSS, and ORCHESTRAL CONCERTO.
  23. orchestral concerto
    Orchestral GENRE in several MOVEMENTS, originating in the late seventeenth century, that emphasized the first VIOLIN part and the BASS, avoiding the more CONTRAPUNTAL TEXTURE of the SONATA.
  24. concerto grosso
    Instrumental work that exploits the contrast in sonority between a small ENSEMBLE of solo instruments (concertino), usually the same forces that appeared in the TRIO SONATA, and a large ENSEMBLE (RIPIENO or concerto grosso).
  25. solo concerto
    CONCERTO in which a single instrument, such as a VIOLIN, contrasts with an ORCHESTRA.
  26. tutti
    (Italian, 'all') (1) In both the SOLO CONCERTO and the CONCERTO GROSSO, designates the full ORCHESTRA. Also called RIPIENO (Italian, 'full'). (2) Instruction to an ENSEMBLE that all should play.
  27. ripieno
    (Italian, 'full') In a SOLO CONCERTO or CONCERTO GROSSO, designates the full ORCHESTRA. Also called TUTTI.
  28. stadtpfeifer
    (German, 'town pipers') Professional town musicians who had the exclusive right to provide music within city limits
  29. collegium musicum
    An association of amateurs, popular during the BAROQUE PERIOD, who gathered to play and sing together for their own pleasure. Today, an ensemble of university students that performs early music.
  30. exposition
    (1) In a FUGUE, a set of entries of the SUBJECT. (2) In SONATA FORM, the first part of the MOVEMENT, in which the main THEMES are stated, beginning in the TONIC and usually closing in the DOMINANT (or relative major).
  31. answer
    In the EXPOSITION of a FUGUE, the second entry of the SUBJECT, normally on the DOMINANT if the subject was on the TONIC, and vice versa. Also refers to subsequent answers to the subject.
  32. chorale prelude
    Relatively short setting for organ of a CHORALE MELODY, used as an introduction for congregational singing or as an interlude in a Lutheran church service
  33. diminution
    (1) Uniform reduction of NOTE values in a MELODY or PHRASE. (2) Type of IMPROVISED ORNAMENTATION in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in which relatively long notes are replaced with SCALES or other FIGURES composed of short notes.
  34. orchestral suite
    Late-seventeenth-century German SUITE for ORCHESTRA patterned after the groups of DANCES in French BALLETS and OPERA.