Card Set Information
Food Human Society
Ying and Yang
Humans have been separted from apes for how many years?
Humans have been separeted from other humans for how many years?
Why were men hunters and females gatherers?
Women are the child bearers, hunting is not child friendly.
Men develop the phsycial characteristics for hunting
What are the skill sets needed for hunting?
Strength and ensurance
Good judgement of distance
What kin of skills derived from hunting? Technical or social?
: when humans hunted they needed to be strategic
: tools used for hunting, the idea of proejcting spears, bows and arrows
Freezing and aging meat
: over time hunters learned that keeping meet away from the fire, helped it last longer
Hunting in some cultures is a right of passage into adulthood
What sort of skills are needed?
: what types of food are good/bad.
: It can take a long time to pick berries
What sort of social or technical benefits come from gathering?
Communicating between families on where to look
: development of baskets and carrying tools
: Which foods had medicinal benefits
What skills sets are needed for gathering?
Good vision in dim light
good placement memory
What foods where eaten back in the day?
Edible roots, reens, acorns, nuts, berries, mushrooms
Ancestors of potato, manioc, turnips, onions, radishes, cabbage
Women also scooped up small animals that presented themselves
What are the beneifts of fire?
Keep away animals, warmth, cooking
What was the first cooking method?
Roasting: this required a fire and a stick (least amount of tools)
What was the first cooking pot made of?
Leather or animal material: for example: after killing a dear, the food inside was heated up and cooked
How long ago was the first use of fire?
500,000 years ago, 75,000 years ago
What are the benifits of cooking?
It takes a lot of energy to eat raw food
Cooked food is easier to digest
More nutrients were available after food is cooked
What were some of the reasons that farming took off?
Accuminaltion of wealth
Specialization of services
How long ago did farmers start farming?
10,000 years ago
2. Leasure Time
4. Domesticated Plants
6. Transportation of Plants and Animals
1. Until recently humans have been less healthy than their hunter-gatherer ancestors. Diseases from close contact from domesticated animals and small variety of diet
2. Hunter-gatherer pace is relaxed, farming was hard ass work
3. Less egalitarian society
4. Domesticated plants and animals are less fit
5. Environmental destruction through cutting down of trees, pestisdes
6. When moving those plants to another part of the world, they will not grow the same way
Why switch to agriculture then?
: end of ice age
Huge decrease in large animals
How did the change from HG to farming happen?
Most hunter-gatherer activily manage their land
: Native Americans
Harvesting of wild cerals eventually led to genetic changes
: humans shaking trees and seeds falling off
When wild sources no longer sufficient to feed the population, you have no choice but to continuing farming
What is food?
Any substance the provides nutrients needed to sustain life
Each culture defines food differently
How do we eat differently than animals?
Humans prepare and cook food in a variety of culturally specific ways
What is the omnivores paradox?
We are flexible but cautious species, attracted to new but preference for the familiar
What animals only eat one type of food?
Koala and Panda Bears
What else have we made food, other than a source of nutrients?
Means of Socializing
Distinguisher of Class, Religion, or Nation
It can be shared, obstained from, stolen, witheld, offered to deceased or sacrificed
How is food is used as part of collective identify?
Commericalization, who can eat with whom
Symbolic use of food
Food can be used as a way to exclude one group from the majority group
What is the Core Complementary Food Model?
What are Core Foods?
Foods that are eaten on a daily baiss such as rice, wheat, grains, corn, potatoe, pasta
What are Complementary Foods?
Something that adds flavor to food such as salt, butter, pasta sauce
What are Secondary Foods
Eatin on a regular basis such as fruits, vegetables and meats
What are Peripheral Foods?
Foods that are Individual present
What is the Flavor Principle?
Singature flavors tha are associated with food preparation within a culture
What is the usefulness of spices?
Disguises unpleasant tastes
Preservation of food
What is a meal element?
In different cutures, certain meals are served for dinner that are eaten for breakfast in other cultures
What is food order?
In Asian cultures, all the food is placed on the table at the same time
What is going on in food preparation and service?
The man or women is cooking the meal, and someone is served first
What is an acculturation process?
An ethnic group moves into another new majority society and begins to adopt the societies values and habits
The process can be at both the invididual or group level
Food habibits are the last tradition to change. True or False?
How can food define us as individuals? For vegitarians, openiness to new foods, or picky food eaters
Vegitarians: are making a statement about their health or political statement
Openess to new foods shows an openmindedness to things in general
A picky eater may not be open to try new experiences
What are the classifications of individual food habits?
Edible by animals but not by me
Edible by humans but not my culture
Edible by my culture by not by me
Edible by me
What are some of the things that drive food decisions?
Cost, Health, Availability, Convenience
Why do we have dining ettiqutte?
To ensure that there will not be violence at the table and will will remain diners and not dinners
What elements of dinner have carefully prescribed procedures?
Invitations, dress, arrival tme, responsibilities of the host and guets, pre-dinner behavior, seating arrangements, utensils, dinner conversations
Where do we eat?
On the go, in the park, in a coutyear, in the mainroom, in the kitchen, in the dining room
In Japanese cultures you eat sitting in chairs at a table?
False, in Japannese culture, you eat on the ground
In Ancient Egyption culture people ate on the go. True or False?
In Ancient Roman culture, there were slaves that served food. True or False?
What did the Ancient Romans invent that we still use today?
Table cloths and napkins
Greek culture was a banquette culture. True or False?
Tablecloth can symbolize what?
Tablecloth can symbolize status in society. Depending on the type of linen used, how clearn the white cloth is.
What do they do differently?
The lunches for kids can be artistic and finisehd in a short period of time
What is the feeling towards lefthandness?
It is not positive, as we consider right to be right. For example, he is right, we shake with our right hand
Where we utensils first introduced?
Utensils were first introduced in China as an extension of our hands
What was the first utensil used?
Knifes doubled as weapons during arguments at the dinner table. True or False?
Knifes were orginally for men only. True or False?
Knifes were originally double sided? True or False
What was the way that ancient civilizations considered spoons?
The spoon was considerd a bowl with with an arm attached
In the US we use the fork as a knife. True or False?
False, we use the fork as a spoon
In Europe, they use use a fork to stab pees. True or False?
In England, they push pees on fork upsidedown. True or False?
What was food served on in the early middle ages?
Large slabs of bread
What was used as a plate in the 1300's?
Ocassional use of wood or pewter
What as used as a plate in the end of the 1600's?
What was used for plates in the early 1800's in North America?
Pewter and china plates adopted in North America
In Ancient rome, how may napkins were used and what were they used for?
lap, neck and leftovers
What was used as a napkin in the middle ages?
In the 17th century where were napkins placed?
Around the neck
In the early 19th century, were were napkins placed?
In the early 19th century, napkins were placed on the lap
What kinds of things were done before eating?
hand washing, tasting for poisen, prayer, speeches, ritual offerings, serving of the food
Back in the day what was the policy for dogs at the table?
Big dogs on the floor, small dogs on the table?
What was the policy for dogs around the table in the 19th century?
In the 19th century, it was considered barbaric, except at individual family dinners
Back in the day it was considered art to have food on the ground. True or False?
Why is food and religion so important?
Because food is a very intimate practice
Food practices can be different even within a religion. True or False?
How old is this relgion?
3000-4000 years old
In Hinduism, the practice of non violence extends to food. True or False?
In Hindu cultures, what is the opinon of the cow?
In Hindu cultures, the cow is considered sacred because she nourishes people with her milk
In Hinduism, pork and most animals are avoided. True or False?
In Hinduism, what foods are avoided?
Crabs, food made by lawyers, spies, thiefs, prostitutes, artists, ect.
In Hinduism how many festivals are there?
In Hinduism there are 18 festivals
In Hinduism, what is Diwali?
Diwali is the festival of light, which is seen as a triump of good over evil
In Hindiuism, what is fasting?
Fasting is the process of avoiding a certain practice. So it doesn't necessarily mean not eating food, but could mean not eating meet.
When did Buddhism start?
Buddhism started around 600BC
Why did Buddhism start?
As a revolt to the caste system
When did Janism start?
It started around 600BC
How many people practice Jainsim?
What is the belief on Jainism?
Spiritual independence, equality of all life. There is no belief in god, but that things are governed by natural law
What are the dietary practices of Jainism?
Food obtained without unnecesasry cruelty
No root vegs.
No feast days, just fast days
Fasting is part of the festival of holy days
How old is Sikkhism?
500 years old
How many gods in Sikkhism?
What is the festival in Sikkhims?
What are the Sikh dietary practices?
No sustance that can harm the body
Avoid food that is killed inhumanely
Vegitarianism is encouraged
No kosher/hala meal
In Sikkhism, what kind of food is served at Gurdwaras?
How long ago was the religion formed?
4000 years ago?
Judasim is a religion as well as a nation. True or False?
What is the book of the Jews?
For a Jew: What does Kosher mean?
Kosher means "fit"
For the Jew: What animals are permitted to eat
Mammals with cloven hooves
Birds with crop, gizzard, extra talon
Fish with fins and scales
For the Jew: What is food is not permitted?
Reptiles, amphibians, and most invertebrates
Another rule for the Jew Diet?
The animal must be killed in a ritually prescribed manner
Jew Food Law: Milk and Meat?
You cannot mix the two. You have wait a certain number of hours before eating them together
For the Jew: what is Sabbath?
Sabbath is a day of rest, so all the food is prepared in advance
For the Jew: What is the name of reglious new year?
For the Jew: What is served at Challah brad?
Lot of honey, no sour or bitter foods
For the Jew: What is the day of atonement called, and what happens?
Yom Kippur, where fasting takes place with a light meal to breakfast
Which group is most lack on dietary rules?
Mardi Gras is really for what religion?
What are the fast days for Eastern orthodox Christians
Wednesday and Friday (vegitarian days)
For Protestants, there are no fast days. True or False?
What are some protestant religions?
Baptists, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist, Anglicans
Which relgion has the largest population in SoCal?
7th Day Adventists
When the the 7th day Advenstist orignate?
In the US in the 1860's
For 7th Day Adventists, there is no tea, coffee, alchohol, or tabacco. True or False?
What is the name of the religion of Latter Day Saints?
Mormans encourage drinking alchohol, tea, coffee, soda, energy drinks and smoking tobacco. True or False?
What is going with Mormans and food?
Mormans are about self reliance. They stockpile canned food, in case of amigeden
When did Islam originate
What is the book of Islam
What hand to people of Islam eat with?
Islam lists the things you can't eat. True or False?
What does Islam restrict with Food?
Four footed animals, pig, improperly slaughted animals, blood products, alcohol and drugs
What does Islam allow in terms of food?
What is the name of the Islamaic festivles?
Ramadan (1 month long), where one re-evaluates their own life and there is no food/liqur from sunrise to sunset
What is the name of the end of Ramadan?
What temperature is Yin and Yang?
What is the idea of Yin and Yang?
If you go out of balance, you will get sick
Where did Yin Yang orginate?
What are some Yin Foods?
Raw, soothing, cooked at low temperatures or
short periods of time, white or light green in color
High in potassium, low in salt
Foods that grow above the ground
Sour in flavor
Ex: non root vegetables, fish, green tea, milk
What are some Yang Foods?
High-calorie foods, cooked at high heat, spicy,
red-orange-yellow in color
High in sodium, low in potassium
Foods that grow below the ground
Foods in high in fat, sugar
Meat, Root vegetables, sweets, high calorie
foods, wine, shellfish
Yin and Yang: What foods are nuetral?
Rice, noodles, bread
What part of the body is served by Yin
Internal Organs, except GI track
What part of the body is served by Yang
GI track, and external body
When pregant, it is said that you can have an excess in...?