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triangle shaped glands located at the top of the kidneys. the outer (cortex) produces steroid hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, and testosterone. the inner (medulla) produces epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline and noradrenaline).
the vessel entering the glomerular capsule.
musculomembranous sac that serves as a reservoir for urine. situated immediately posterior & superior to the pubic symphysis and is directly anterior to the rectum in males and anterior to the vaginal canal in females.
- a round mass of medicinal material, larger than an ordinary pill.
- a soft, roundish mass or lump, especially of chewed food.
- cup-shaped stems arising at the sides of the papilla of each renal pyramid. each calyx encloses one or more papillae, so that there are usually fewer _____ than pyramids.
the beginning branches that unite to form 2 or 3 larger tubes called major calyces.
unite to form the expanded, funnel-shaped, renal pelvis.
a flexible or rigid hollow tube employed to drain fluids from body cavities or to distend body passages , especially one of for passing into the bladder through the urethra to draw off urine or into the heart through the leg vein or arm vein for diagnostic examination.
continues from the ascending loop of henle to the collecting duct.
distal convoluted tubule
continues from the glomerular capsule to the descending loop of henle.
proximal convoluted tubule
the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla.
the vessel leaving the glomerular capsule.
- the act or process of discharging waste matter from the blood, tissues, or organs. results from metabolic processes.
- the natural process of eliminating bodily wastes in feces and urine.
double-walled membrane that encloses the glomerulus.
glomerular capsule (bowman's capsule)
- cluster of blood capillaries within the renal corpuscle.
- formed be a minute branch of the renal artery entering the capsule and dividing into capillaries. the capillaries turn back and, as they ascend, unite to from a single vessel leaving the capsule.
- serves as filter for blood, permitting water and finely dissolved substances to pass through the walls of the capillaries into the capsule.
- the concave medial border of each kidney has a longitudinal slit, called the _____, for transmission of the blood and the lymphatic vessels, nerves, and ureter.
- it expands into the body of the kidney to form a central cavity called the renal sinus.
- the act of injecting
- something that is injected
- a liquid injected into the body, especially for medicinal purposes, as a hypodermic or an enema.
either of a pair of bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands.
knees & hips are flexed and thighs are abducted & rotated laterally.
the part of the kidney tubules that form a long loop in the medulla, from which water and salts are reabsorbed into the blood.
- starts at pct and ends at dct
loop of henle
- innermost part of the kidney. split up into a number of sections, known as renal pyramids.
- contains structures of the nephrons responsible for maintaining the salt and water balance of the blood.
- aids in reabsorption of water.
- contains urine-collecting tubules
urination; the normal process of excreting urine.
a functional unit of the kidney. these units form urine by the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
-the tissue that performs the pain physiological functions of the organ, especially a gland, as opposed to the tissues (stroma) that mainly provide structural support.
- nephrons and collecting tubes are the renal __________.
the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that's surrounded by the renal cortex and medulla. this is where the newly formed urine collects before it flows into the ureters.
-any of the various pyramidal masses that are seen upon longitudinal sections of the kidney and that contain part of the secreting tubules and the collecting tubules
- any one of several conical masses of tissue that form the kidney medulla. the base of each pyramid adjoins the kidney's cortex; the apex terminates at a renal calyx. the pyramids consist of the loops of henle and collecting tubules of the nephrons.
the openings of the two ureters and the urethra mark this smooth-surfaced triangular area on the bladder floor.
two narrow tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
- each is about 10-12" long.
the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body.
the resistance of a fluid to flow; the thickness or stickiness of a fluid.
the molar concentration of dissolved particles in 1 kg of water.
(in a solution) a measure of the amount of dissolved substance contained per unit of volume.
the absence of urine formation by the kidneys.
moving or extending forward.
urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down. a test can be done to measure the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood. often done to check kidney function.
blood urea nitrogen (bun)
a stone; an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body. they vary in size from small, sand-like granules, to the size of marbles; and are named for the organ or tissue where they are located. in the urinary system, stones are formed when the waste products in the urine crystallize.
an amino acid C4H9N3O2, that is a constituent of the muscles of the vertebrates and is phosphorylated to store energy used for muscular contraction.
also known as a fallen bladder, is a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall.
a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter. (the resulting film is a cystogram).
- the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope.
- specialized cystoscope is also for treatment procedures such as the removal of tumors or the reduction of an enlarged prostate.
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function.
a difficult or painful urination; frequently associated with urinary tract infections.
a birth defect in which a kidney is located below, above, or on the opposte side of its usual position.
- a discharge or escape, as of blood, from a vessel into the tissues; blood or other substance so discharged.
- a passage or escape into the tissues, usually of blood, serum, or lymph.
- the inadvertant administration of a vesicant into the tissues.
- the escape of body fluid out of its proper place.
- inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidney.
- also known as bright's disease, a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into urine.
the presence of blood in the urine; can be caused by kidney stones, infection, damage to the kidney, or bladder cancer.
- the dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys.
- can be caused by problems associated with the backing up of urine due to an obstruction such as a stricture in the ureter or blockage in the opening from the bladder to urethra, or in urethra itself.
- distention of the renal pelvis & calyci with urine.
the most common type of kidney cancer. it begins in the lining of the renal tubules in the kidney. the renal tubules filter the blood and produce urine. also called renal cell adenocarcinoma, renal cell cancer, or renal cell carcinoma.
the inability to control the excretion of urine and feces.
a radiograph of the kidney following the intravenous injection of a radiopaque substance.
the presence of stones in the kidney.
- (as the stones travel with urine, they are named for the location of where they become lodged)
also known as floating kidney, is the prolapse of a kidney.
(prolapse - slipping or falling out of place)
the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body.
a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood. (result of damage to the kidney's glomeruli)
means scanty urination. (opposite of polyuria)
- a form of imaging of the renal pelvis and ureter.
- special x-ray exam of the kidneys, bladder, and ureters.
an inflammation of the renal pelvis.
excessive urination. (opposite of oliguria)
- the act of retaining
- state of being retained
procedure where the physician injects contrast into the ureter in order to visualize the ureter and kidney flow, up from bladder to kidney.
very large calculus that nearly fills the calyceal system, with extentions into calyces that give the appearance of a stag's (deer) horns.
also known as uremic poisoning, it's a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood.
radiography of the urethra.
the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements.
- an x-ray examination used to check the kidneys and the tubes that drain them.
(special dye is used to reveal any differences between kidneys or other abnormalities. may also be used to look at the size and shape of the bladder. often called IVU.
also known as hives; are itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction.
a diagnostic procedure in which a flouroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra.
(often performed after cystography)
- most common childhood abdominal neoplasm (tumor) affecting the kidney.
- tumor - new tissue growth where cell proliferation is uncontrolled.