History Notes ch 17

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  1. Aristotelian Universe
    • Derived from Ptolemy, Aristotle, and Plato
    • Classical Writings "christianized"
    • Components of Medieval Cosmology
    • Medieval Physics
  2. Causes of the Scientific Revolution
    • Medieval Intellectual Life and Medieval Universities
    • The Italian Renaissance
    • Renewed emphasis on mathematics
    • Renaissance system of patronage
    • Navigational problems of long sea voyages
    • better scientific instruments
  3. Consequences of the Scientific Revolution
    • Rise of the "Scientific Community"
    • -Royal Society of London (1662)
    • -Academy of Royal Sciences (1666)
    • The modern scientific method
    • A universe ordered according to natural laws
    • Laws discovered by human reason
    • "De-spiritualized and de-mystified the universe
    • Mechanical View of the Universe
    • Deistic View of God
  4. What was the Enlightenment?
    • Progressive, Rationalistic, humanistic Worldview
    • Emerged out of the Scientific Revolution and culminated in the French Revolution
    • Spokesmen were the rising Middle Class and Paris was its center
    • Optimism about mankind's abilities
  5. Key Ideas of the Enlightenment
    • Distrusted tradition and revealed religion
    • Scientific method could be applied to society as well
    • Society can get better as risks are taken
    • Man i naturally good
    • Good life is on earth
  6. The World of the Old Regime
    • Built on tradition
    • world of hierarchy, privilege and inequality
    • allied with the Church
    • Challenged by the reform impulse of supporters of the Enlightenment`
  7. Conflict with the Capitalistic Middle Class
    • Support for the Middle class social order against the traditional social order
    • Size and increasing power of the Middle Class
    • New notion of wealth
    • Tension and discord created by the Middle Class
  8. Popularization of Science
    • The popularity of science in the 17th and 18th centuries
    • Conversations on the Plurality of the Worlds (1686)- Bernard de Fontenelle
    • The Scientific Revolution promised the comprehensibility of the workings of the universe
    • It promise cures for diseases and solutions to everyday problems of life
  9. A New World of Uncertainties
    • The idea of Progress
    • The anti-religious implications of the Enlightenment
    • The relativity of truth and morality
    • John Locke's New Psychology
    • - Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
    • -"Tabula Rasa"
  10. The Philosophes
    • 18th century French Intellectuals
    • Interest in addressing a broad audience
    • Committed to reform
    • Celebrated the scientific revolution
    • the "Mystique of Newton"
    • Science applied to society
  11. The Problem of Censorship
    • The attempt of the Old Regime to control new thinking
    • Publishers and writers hounded by censors
    • Over 1000 booksellers and authors imprisoned in the Bastille in the early 1700's
  12. The Role of the Salon
    • Protection and encouragement offered by French aristocratic women in their private drawing rooms
    • Feminine influence on the Ennlightenment
    • Madame Geoffrin
  13. Diderot's Encyclopedia
    • Ultimate strength of philosophies lay in their numbers, dedication and organization
    • The Encyclopedia was written between 1751-1772
    • Attempted to illustrate all human knowledge
    • Problems with publication
    • Emphasis on practical science
    • Desire to change the "general way of thinking"
    • Greater knowledge leads to human progress
    • Emphasized moderation and tolerance
    • Human nature can be molded
    • Inalienable rights and the social contract
    • Knowledge improves goodness
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History Notes ch 17
scientific revolution
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