Meda 110 Ch. 6

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  1. Hematopoiesis
    Process of blood cell formation.
  2. Short Bones
    Are wide as they are long.
  3. Sesamoid Bones
    Unique, irregular bones embedded in the substance of tendons and usually located around a joint. I.e. Kneecap
  4. Orthopedics
    Medical specialty that deals with the prevention and correction of disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
  5. Diaphysis
    • Main shaftlike portion of a long bone.
    • Consists of a hollow cylinder of compact bone.
  6. Meduallry (Marrow) Cavity
    Within the center of the diaphysial shaft is the meduallry (marrow) cavity.
  7. Haversian Canals
    Compact bone has a system of small canals called the haversian canals that extends lengthwise through the bone.
  8. Cancellous Bone
    • Also called spongy bone or trabecular bone, is not as dense as compact bone.
    • Trabeculae: Needlelike bony spicules that give the cancellous bone its spongy appearance.
  9. Red Bone Marrow
    • The spaces between the trabeculae are filled with red bone marrow. It is in the red marrow that blood cell production occurs throughout one's life.
    • In an infant or child almost all of the bones contain red marrow.
    • In the adult the bones that still contain red marrow include the ribs, the vertebrae, the epiphyses of the humerus and the femur, the sternum, and the pelvis.
  10. Yellow Marrow
    Stores fat and is not an active site for blood cell production in the adult.
  11. Osteoblasts
    • Immature bone cells.
    • They actively produce the bony tissue that replaces the cartilages.
    • The conversion of the fibrous connective tissue and cartilage into bone or a bony substance is known as ossification.
  12. Epiphysis
    Located at each end of a long bone.
  13. Epishyseal Line
    A layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis of the bone.
  14. Periosteum
    • Thick white fibrous membrane that covers the surface of the long bone except at joint surfaces.
    • These joint surfaces are covered with Articular Cartilage (A thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and the surfaces of the joints).
  15. Compact Bone
    • Hard outer shell of the bone.
    • Lies under the periosteum.
  16. Osteoclasts
    • Large cells that digest, or absorb, bony tissue.
    • They help to hollow out the central portion of the bone by eating away at or destroying the old bone tissue from the inner walls of the medullary cavity.
  17. Resorption
    Process of removing old bone tissue, or destroying it so that its components can be absorbed into circulation.
  18. Osteocytes
    • Matture bone cells.
    • living cells that continue to maintain the bone without producing new bone tissue.
  19. Tuberosity
    An elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone usually for attachment of muscles or tendons.
  20. Trochanter
    Large bony process located below the neck of the femur, for the attachment of muscles.
  21. Condyle
    A knucklelie projection at the end of a bone usually fits into a fossa of another bone to form a joint.
  22. Crest
    A distinct border or ridge an upper elevated edge as in the upper part of the hip bone (iliac crest), generally a site for muscle attachment.
  23. Sulcus or Fissure
    A groove or depression in a bone, a fissure.
  24. Sinus
    An opening or hollow space in a bone, as in the paranasal sinuses or the frontal sinus.
  25. Fossa
    A hollow or shallow concave depression in a bone.
  26. Foramen
    A hole within a bone that allows blood vessels or nerves to pass through, as in the foramen magnum of the skull that allows the spinal cord to pass through it.
  27. Cranial Bones
    • 8 of them.
    • The borders meet to form sutures or immovable joints.
    • Frontal: forehead
    • Parietal (2): most of the top and the upper sides of the cranium.
    • Occipital: back of the head and the base of the skull.
    • Temporal (2): forms the lower sides and part of the base of the skull.
    • Sphenoid: located at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bones.
    • Ethmoid: lies just behind the the nasal bone, in front of the sphenoid bone.
  28. Fontanelle
    • A space between bones of an infant's cranium that is covered by a tough membrane.
    • Normally closes between 18 and 24 months.
  29. Facial Bones
    • There are 14 of them.
    • Maxillae (2): upper jaw.
    • Mandible: lower jaw.
    • Zygomatic (2): One on each side of the face, form the high part of the cheek and the outer border of the orbits.
    • Nasal bones (2): upper part of the bridge.
    • Lacrimal bones (2): inner corner of each eye.
    • Vomer: Thin flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum.
    • Palatine bones (2): shaped like a letter L. Forms the sidewall of the back of the nasal cavity.
    • Nasal Conchae (2): Bones help to complete the nasal cavity by forming the side and lower wall.
  30. Hyoid Bone
    • Located just above the larynx and the mandible.
    • Serves as points of attachment for muscles of the tongue and throat.
  31. Vertebral Bones
    • 24 of them and the sacrum and coccyx.
    • C1-C7
    • T1-T12
    • L1-L5 (larger and heavier since they support the back and lower trunk of the body.
    • Sacrum
    • Coccyx (4)
  32. Vertebrae
    • Parts of the vertebrae:
    • Vertebral Body
    • Vertebral Foramen
    • Lamina
    • Tansverse Process
    • Spinous Process
    • Vertebral Arch
  33. Bones of the Thorax
    • 12 pairs of ribs.
    • True Ribs: first seven parts of the ribs.
    • False Ribs: consist of the next three pairs of ribs (8-10)
    • Floating Ribs: last two ribs.
  34. Manubrium
    Broad upper end of the sternum.
  35. Acromion
    Somewhat spoon shaped projection of the scapula that connects with the clavicle to form the highest point of the shoulder.
  36. Humerus
    • Upper arm bone.
    • Joins the scapula above and the radius and ulna below.
  37. Olecranon
    Forms the point of the elbow.
  38. Carpals
    • Bones of the wrist are known as the carpals.
    • Each wrist has eight bones carpal bones (two rows of 4 bones each).
  39. Metacarpals
    Bones of the hand are known as metacarpals.
  40. Phalanges
    • Bones of the fingers are known as the phalanges.
    • Each finger has 3 phalangeal bones. The thumb has only 2.
  41. Ilium
    Largest of the 3 hip bones.
  42. Iliac Crest
    Upper curved edge of the ilium.
  43. Ischial Spine
    Ischium has a projection on either side, at the back of the pelvic outlet, known as the ischial spine.
  44. Ischium
    Lowest part of the hip bones and is the strongest of the pelvic bones.
  45. Symphysis Pubis
    Point of connection of the two pubic bones.
  46. Acetabulum
    Segments of the ilium, ischium, and pubis form the acetabulum which is the socket that serves as the connecting point for the femur.
  47. Sacral Foramen
    Small openings in the fused segments of the sacrum through which the sacral nerves pass.
  48. Patella
    Largest sesamoid bone.
  49. Tibia
    Larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones.
  50. Fibula
    Lateral to the tibia.
  51. Bones of the Ankle
    • Tarsals
    • Calcaneus (heel bone)
    • Talus (joins the tib and fib to form the ankle joint).
  52. Bones of the Foot
    • Metatarsals
    • Heads of the metatarsals form the ball of the foot.
    • Phalanges: bones of the toes. Each toe has 3 except for the big toe which only has 2.
  53. Stenosis
    Abnormal condition characterized by a narrowing or restriction of an opening or passageway in a body structure.
  54. Tubercle
    A small rounded process of a bone.
  55. -blast
    Embryonic stage of development.
  56. -clast or -clastic
    To break.
  57. Gen/o
    To produce.
  58. Lamin/o
  59. Lord/o
    Swayback, bent.
  60. Malac/o or -malacia
  61. Myel/o
    Spinal cord or bone marrow.
  62. Orth/o
  63. -physis
    Growth or growing.
  64. Por/o
    Cavity opening passage or pore.
  65. Rach/i
    Spinal column.
  66. Spondyl/o
  67. Sten/o
    Short, contracted, or narrow
  68. Osteoporosis
    • Literally means porous bones, that is bones that were once strong become fragile.
    • Classic sings of osteoporosis is kyphosis.
  69. Osteomalacia
    • A disease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.
    • When the disease occurs in children it is called rickets.
  70. Osteomyelitis
    • A local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood.
    • Most frequently caused by a staphylococcal infection.
  71. Malaise
    Vague feeling of discomfort.
  72. Purulent
    A pus containing drainage.
  73. Ewing's Sarcoma
    Malignant tumor of the bones common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys.
  74. Osteogenic Sarcoma or Osteosarcoma
    • Malignant tumor arising from bone.
    • Most common malignant bone tumor.
    • Common sites being the distal femur, proximal tibia, and the proximal humerus.
  75. Osteochondroma
    • Most common benign bone tumor.
    • The femur and tibia are most frequently involved.
    • usually located within the bone marrow cavity.
  76. Paget's Disease or Osteitis Deformans
    • Nonmetabolic disease of the bone, chracterized by excessive bone destruction (breakdown of bone tissue by the osteoclasts) and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts.
    • This bone is weak and prone to fractures.
  77. Spinal Stenosis
    Narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramini openings of the lumbar spinal canal.
  78. Talipes Equinovarus
  79. Scoliosis
    Abnormal lateral curvature of a portion of the spine.
  80. Idiopathic
  81. Fractures
    • Closed fracture: simple fracture.
    • Open fracture: compound fracture.
    • Complete fracture: break that extends through the entire thickenss of the bone.
    • Greenstick fracture: incomplete fracture.
    • Compression fracture: caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other.
    • Impacted Fracture: occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break.
    • Comminuted fracture: splinters or crushes a segment of a bone.
    • Colles' fracture: Lower end of the radius within 1" of connecting with the wrist bones.
    • Hairline fracture: is also known as a stress fracture.
  82. Bone Scan
    IV injection of a radioisotope which is absorbed by bone tissue.
  83. Bone Marrow Aspiration
    Process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site.
  84. DEXA
    • Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry
    • Noninvasive procedure that measures bone density.
    • It is an X-ray machine that generates energy photons that pass through the bones.
  85. Fx
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Meda 110 Ch. 6
Meda 110 Ch. 6
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