Microbiology II Major - Sheet1.csv

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  1. Adsorption
    This is when the viruses attaches itself to the cell.
  2. Ames Test
    Test used to see how mutagenic a chemical is. A plate with minimal media is streaked for confluency with Salmonella typhimurim His- . A well in the middle is made or a piece of paper soak with the chemical. Then the plate is incubated. The chemical that cause mutations will cause the salmonella typhiurin to revert back and prototroph and grow in colonies around the highest concentration of the chemical (around the well). This means that the chemical is a mutagen. No growth signifies that it is not a mutagen.
  3. Assembly
    After the parts and pieces are made they are put together. Remember this is not always 100% accurate (transduction).
  4. Attennuation
    To lessen a the virulence of a virus. Pasture discovered this concept. After isolating the cholerae virus he accidentally noticed that leaving the virus out for about 6 weeks weakened the virus. After injecting the weakened virus into the chickens they didn't die. Then he injected the chickens with the full strength virus he noticed they didnt die. The chickens injected with the weakened virus they gained immunity since the virus was in LAG phase it was weakend. This was done with Vibrio cholerea
  5. Auxotrophs
    (Nutritional mutants) inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth. Is a mutant but refers to nutritional requriements. Lacks biosythetic capability. Referred to as (-). Ex. met-
  6. Back Mutations
    When a bacteria will go from an auxotroph to a prototroph. Back to wild type. Salmonella typhimurium his- is highly likely to do this.
  7. Bacteriophage
    Viruses that only attack bacteria. They can mediate gene transfer. Do to accidental packaging of bacterial DNA instead of its own viral DNA/RNA
  8. Basic shapes of Viruses
    Icosahedral (polyhedron). Helical. Complex (combination of both icoshedral and helical). Bullet (rabbies) .
  9. Biosynthesis
    When the virus takes over the cell and begins to make the parts and pieces to replicate itself.
  10. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
    Mad Cow Disease. Is caused by a piron (infectious self duplicating protein) in beef. Variant CJD. The human manifestation is called varient Creutzve H Jacob Disease (genetic disease). Is a met-met homozygus dna
  11. Calcium chloride
    Can be used during late log phase to stress the cell to make it more competent (more permeable) making for greater success inserting new donor DNA (naked DNA) into the cell. Increases the chance of transformation
  12. Capsid
    Protein coat surrounding the virus. Made up of many little structures called capsomere.
  13. Classification of Virus
    "1. Size 2. Shape. 3. Nucleic Acid. 4. Host Range (narrow--->broad). 5. Host specificity (neurtropic
  14. Competent
    The physical state in which the plasma membrane will be permeable enough to allow for DNA to enter the cell. Changes in selective permeability of bacterial cell membrane have take place to allow enterance of large moleucles like DNA.
  15. Complex shape example
  16. Cow pox
    Noticed when milk maids were infected with the cow pox it gave them immunity to the small pox virus. Small pox and cow pox were similar enough to give immunity.
  17. Creations of vacccines
    Mumps. Chicken Pox. Influenza. Use duck/chickens and inject with virus. They rapid growth of the egg increses the growth rate of the viruses then it is harvested to make the vaccine.
  18. Criteria for Conjugation
    1. No dead donor DNA. 2. Must be a living cell. 3. Cell does not need to be competent. 4. Needs a living donor. 5. MUST HAVE PRESENCE OF SEX PILUS. 6. No presence of transducing bacteriophage. (MOST SUCCESSFUL)
  19. Criteria for Transduction
    1. No dead donor. 2. Living recipient. 3. Does not need to be competent. 4. Living donor is need but is short lived due to bacteriophage. 5. No pressence of sex pilus. 6. Does require transducing bacteriophage. (least common)
  20. Criteria for Transformation
    1. Dead donor DNA (Naked DNA). 2. Cell must be living. 3. Cell must be competent. 4. The donor does not have to be living. 5. Does not need the presence of sex pilus gene. 6. Does not need pressence of transducing bacteriophage. (MOST FREQUENT)
  21. Donor DNA
    comes from a dead cell where it is spilling out its DNA. The free DNA is referred to as NAKED DNA. It is not enclosed by a cell.
  22. Endosome
    During endocytosis the virus is taken in and surrounded by the cell membrane. Then it releases its nucleic acid
  23. Envelope
    Typical bilayer membrane. Like one found in our cells. Surrounds the protein body (capsid)
  24. Enveloped virus
    With an envelope that comes from host. Tend to be more virulent
  25. Frederick Griffith (1928)
    Discovered transformation. Was working with streptococcus pneumonia. Was growing to different phenotypes (strains). 85% Homology same strain. Smooth (S) and Rough (R). The (S) was extremely virulent and would kill the mice. When he injected a mouse with living (R) and dead (S) the mouse would die. The was due to the (R) strain converting into the (S) strain via transformation.
  26. Fussion Event
    When the virus will meld to the cell membrane and then release its nucleic acid into the cell. (HIV)
  27. Genetic Transfer Mechanisms
    Transformation. Conjugation. Transduction.
  28. Growth Curve and competency
    The bacterial cell membrane will be compentent in late log phase when nutrients are beginning to decrease and continues into stationary phase
  29. H spikes
    Hemaglutnin. Used first during adsorption. More of H spikes than N spikes. Attach to polysaccharides on the cells surface.
  30. Helical shaped examples
    Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  31. Hfr
    High frequency recombination. When the plasmid comes over and is inserted into the chromosome. This is when the F + plasmid has intergrated itself into the bacterial DNA and is no longer a plasmid. During binary fission of a Hfr cell it will transfer the F+ genes since it is incorporated into the chromosomes. If it is a F+ cell meaning it is still on a plasmid during conjugation only one of the cells will recieve the F+ plasmid.
  32. Horizontal Gene Transfer
    The process of transfering DNA from one microbe to another
  33. How to check if a virus is enveloped
    Isolate the virus. Treat wtih chloroform or ether this will dissolve the envelope if it has one. Then insert the virus back into the host and see if it dies. If it doesnt die it is enveloped because the treatment removed the envelope (virulent). If it still kills it is a naked virus (had always been virulent without the coat).
  34. Icosahedral shape example
    Hepatits A virus. Polio virus
  35. Influenza A receptors
    Surface oligosaccharides with a terminal sialic acid (receptor specificity varies). most avian and equine viruses preferentially bind to N-acetylneuraminic acid-2.3. galactose linkage on teh sialic oligosaccharide. Most human and wein prefer the acetylneuramininc acid 2.3. galactose linkage. This small shift in a carbon makes it easy for the virus to jump species.
  36. Influenzavirus
    Highly virulent. Enveloped. RNA virus (8 RNA strands). Broad host range. Orthomyoxviridae (family). Short incubation 1-3days. 8 single-stranded RNA genome. Envelope and made up of H and N spikes.
  37. Inside of virus
    Nucleic acid RNA/DNA
  38. Koch Postulate
    Procedure used to isolate a virus to properly identify that its the pathogen and grow it.
  39. Lysogenic cycle
    Goes through biosynthesis until the point where they are just intergrated into the cell. The viral DNA will remain in the cell DNA until certain factors then will begin to produce viruses. (Herpes virus)
  40. Lytic cycle
    They go the 6 steps of replication very quickly. This is also known as a burst. Destroying many cells
  41. M2 channel
    Facilitates the of the RNA into the host cytoplasm. Are channels that extend from the envelope into the capside. Influenze comes in an endosome. The M2 channel will facilitate the enterance of H+ (hydrogens) from the cytoplasm. fAs they come in they will drop the pH and denature capsid and other coating releasing the RNA.
  42. Matrix
  43. Maturation and Release
    Afer the viruses are made in the cell it does a final check to make sure it is complete. (Maturation). The virus will receive its envelope from taking a part of the cell membrane and then leaving the cell (release).
  44. Mixing vessles
    Migrator ducks are responsible for the recombination of the influenza virus. Since they migrate they spread the virus worldwide.
  45. Mutant vs wild type
    The wild type has the most common phenotypes seen in a population. Mutants have some variation different than the wild type it could be: phenotypical. cell/colonial morphology. Temperature sensitivity. Antibiotic sensitivity. Nutritional
  46. Mutation
    Damage or change of the DNA. Can induce mutagens to monitor effects on the bacteria.
  47. N spikes
    Neuramidase. Used for release of from the cell. Works in the enzyme Sialidase.
  48. Naked Virus
    Without envelope. Protein coat and nucleic acid.
  49. Naming strains of influenza
    Named by the amino sequence of the N and H spikes.
  50. Naming virus
    Order + disease + virus. Ex. Bunyaviridae Hantavirus
  51. Oncoviruses
    Are viruses are associated with cancer (leukemia and lymphomas)
  52. Outcome if horizontal gene transfer is successful
    1. Go into chromosome. 2. Stored as a plasmid. 3. Lost or cured.
  53. Penetration
    When the nucleic acid is placed into the cell (2 ways: Fussion event or Endocyctosis)
  54. Plaque
    "Junk pile host cells. (Visual evidence of virus)
  55. Plaque Assay
    Special plate that can be used to see if phages are present in the culture. Will look for area underneath colonies where the bacteria have been blown up. Must also see if phage is transducing
  56. Pox/Pock
    Lessions that are used to detect the pressence of viruses. Usually leave a scar. (Chicken pox)
  57. Prototrophs
    Wild type. has the biosynthetic capability usually referred to as +. Ex. met+
  58. Provirus and Prohage
    Provirus when the viral DNA is incorporated the cell DNA. Prohage is when the viral DNA is incorporated in a BACTERIAL CELL DNA.
  59. Reason for (S) strain highly virulence
    The strain has a capsule making it incapable of being engulfed by phagocytosis and destroyed by neutrophils and macrophages
  60. Reason for vaccines
    We have very few antiviral drugs to fight off viruses. Having immunity to the viruses can stop the spread of it since viruses usually kill people who are immuno compromised or immuno suppressed.
  61. Recombinant
    If the DNA passed to the microbe is kept. It is considered recombinant.
  62. Recombination
    Reassortment and rearrangement of RNA strands.
  63. Replica plating
    Used to isolate a specific auxotrophs from prototrophs. Makes an exact duplicate of the intial plate so you can place on a minimal medium to isolate colony.
  64. Replica Plating Procedure
    First you use the spread plate technique and create a master plate (contains both auxotrophs and prototrophs). Now a velvet/velveteen sterile sheet is pressed onto plate to make an impression. After the impression is made it is transfered to another master plate and one with minimal medium (make sure to mark the plates for proper orientation). Then these two plates are incubated and then compared. We look for the missing colonies on the minimal medium but are present on the master plate. This means these are the colonies of the auxotrophs. Then you culture this colony and grow it again in medium with and without the specific nutrient.
  65. Replicated cycle of viruses
    1. Adsorption (attachment) 2. Penetration. 3. Biosynthesis 4. Assembly 5. Maturation. 6. Release
  66. RNA segments in influenza lead to what
    Increasing recombination. Recombination vaccine strains are needed.
  67. Salmonella typhimurium His-
    G- rods. Very sensitive to back mutations or reserve mutations. Will go form auxotroph back to prototrophs
  68. Sex pilus
    Must have genes to create the sex pilus. Is made of pylin. Is referred to as F+. If the sex pilus gene is transfered to from F- can convert to F+. (F = fertility factor)
  69. Sialidase
    Used to help release the virus from the cell.
  70. Spikes
    Can have many different types of spikes on the surface. Are used for absorption (attachment) and release.
  71. Strains of influenza
    Strains A and B infect humans are most common.
  72. Tranducing bacteriophage
    Special bacteriophages that can mediate gene transfer by the accidental uptake of bacterial DNA.
  73. Transgene
    When you insert DNA into a bacterial cell. Transplantation of genes
  74. Types of vaccines
    "1. ""Live"" attenuated 2. ""Killed"" not going to infect you 3. Semi synthetic (parts and pieces of the virus. are multivalent (many different viral proteins in the vaccine)"
  75. U tube function
    1950 Davis invented this U shaped tube. That has a fritted glass filter that will not allow bacteria to pass through. Is about .045 micrometers. Typic
  76. Virions
    Outside of the cell. Virus outside of a cell. Refers to location.
  77. Viruses
    Inside the cell
  78. Reassortment
    When you are exposed to two different strains at the same time. As the viruses reproduce in the same cell. During assembly you have 16 strands of virus. 8 from one and another 8 from the other. Now sometimes during the assembly they DNA/RNA gets mixed up during the packaging. This means a new virus can be made containing some of one strain of influenza and another strain. This reassortment can occur multiple times.
  79. Parasitism
    When something gets into a new host it starts off in a very parasitic manner. Microbe is inflicting harm on the host.
  80. Mutualism
    The complete opposite of parasitism. Over evolutionary time some parasites can become mutualistic. This is beneficial to host and microbe.
  81. h1n1
    Spanish Flue of 1918 was a pandemic (global phenomenon). Has resurfaced after sometime. Is a very virulent virus.Came back due to reassortment. The response to virus was what was actually killing us. Not the virus itself. Killing about 600000 in US and about 25 million worldwide. Orgin is believed to US soliders brought it back from Europe.
  82. Nomenclature of influenza outbreak
    Type. Where isolated. Number of isolates. year. Spike profile.
  83. Influenza A info
    "Avian virus that ""rently jumped to humans"". Bird carry the greatest number and range of influenza strains. Hemagglutinin (H) consists of 15 majro antigenic types. 9 for Neuramidase (N). See antigentic drift (common). shift occasional. 3 for H (h1. h2. h3). 2 for N (n1. n2). h5 1997-1998 resortment between human and avian strains h5n1 (hong kong)"
  84. Antigenic drift
    Minor antigenic profile changes. Not enough to recode the virus.
  85. Antigenic shfit
    Major antigenic profile. New name. Must recode virus. Happens approximately every 10 years.
  86. Influenza B
    Go through shift and drift more slowly. Was recently isolated in seals. Usually with B/Yamagata/16/88 like and B/Victoria2/87-like strains. Generation of plasmid-only system for generation of recombination strains
  87. Influenza C
    Only found in humans.
  88. Influenza vaccine
    "Approximately 70% protection. Killed virus (used). Live attenuated (used minimally). Semi-synthetic (and multivalent
  89. Multivalent
    Extracted viral antigens from (i.e. H antigens). Ex. 2 A strains and a B strain in one vaccine.
  90. Nasal Spray flu vaccine
    Flu-Mist or live attenuated intranasal vaccine. LAIV. Approvied for ages 5-49. Not approved less than 5. taking asprin. or older than 49.
  91. Thimerosal
    Some vacciens contain this preservative. Mercury based compound. Theoretical risk of mercury poisoning in children/infants. Two vaccines currently approved for infants.
  92. Preventing the spread
    Hand washing. coughing into sleeve. and immunization.
  93. HIV
    Highly virulent. RNA virus (2 single strands). Enveloped. Retroviruses. Uses a fusion event to enter cell.
  94. Spikes for HIV
    gp 120/41. Glycoprotein adsporption.
  95. Where the receptors for HIV to attach
    Receptors CD4. Certain cells for immune system. Epithelial cells. Nervous system.
  96. HIV co-receptors
    Chemokines co-receptors CCR5-CXCR4. When the virus lands on the receptor these co receptors will help it lock in so adsorption is assured.
  97. HIV burst size
    Large burst cell. Releases thousands and thousands from one cell.
  98. Enzymes for replication HIV
    Reverse transcriptase. Integrase. Protease.
  99. Reverse transcriptase
    After being released into the cell will write the single stranded RNA to single stranded DNA. Compliments of the DNA will make a double stranded DNA. Once it is made it will move into the nucleus.
  100. Integrase
    The double stranded DNA created by reverse transcriptase gets into the nucleus using this enzyme. Is intergrated into the cell.
  101. Protease
    Large proteins made by the virus will need to be cleaved by this enzyme (primary) to make the capsid. In additon is involved in penetration.
  102. Adsorption of HIV
    It is a fusion event. First the gp 120 will bind to the CD4 receptor and a CCR5 coreceptor. The fusion will occur and the capsid will degrade as it moves in and release its RNA and its 3 enzymes.
  103. Important genes HIV
    env (making spike proteins) gag (capsid protein) pol (polimerase)
  104. Infection take place
    Inside the nucleus when it becomes incorporated into the chromosome.
  105. M-tropic
    Infect macrophages work on CCR5
  106. t-tropic
    infects t cells and works on CXCR4
  107. Cytomegalovirus
    Chronic fatigue syndrome. Part of the herpes virus family. May serve to enhance HIV because CMV encodes a chemokine receptor similar to human chemokine receptor. Has a homologous receptor. HIV can attach CMV in a piggyback method. Now when they are attached now they can expand the viruses specificity. Will see HIV in more areas.
  108. AIDS
    Applies to the most advanced stages of HIV infections. Condition of your immune system at a certain point. People who have fewer than 200 CD4 positive T cells (abbreviated CD4+ T cells) per cubuc millimeter of blood. Healthy adults usually have about 1000 T cells per cubic ml. 26-29 clinical conditions that fall under the syndrome aspects of AIDS
  109. AIDS subtypes
    US/Europe B. South America B/C. Africa A/b/c/d/e
  110. Signs and symptoms of HIV infection
    Fever. Headache. Tiredness. Enlarged lymph nodes. These symptoms usually disappear within a week a to a month and are often mistaken for those of another viral infection.
  111. Signs and symptoms oexperienced months to years before the onset of AIDS
    Lack of energy. Weight loss. Frequent fever and night sweats. Persistant or frequent yeast infections. Persistant skin rashes or flaky skin. PID. Short-term memory loss.
  112. Symptoms of opportunistic infections common in people with AIDS
    Coughing. SOB. seizure lack of coordination. Difficult or painful swallowing.
  113. Kaposi's sarcoma
    A cancer prone to people with AIDS. Round brown. reddish. or purple spots that develop in the skin or in the mouth.
  114. Clinical latency
    You will have a moderate amount of T cells. To keep you from getting a lot of infections. Eventually these cells will begin to decline.
  115. Constitutional symptoms
    Around 400 CD4+ you begin to show clinical symptoms.
  116. Herpes in the brain
    Herpes infects the nervous system. Many neurological deficient. Can lead to actual lead to destruction of brain tissue.
  117. Detection of HIV
    Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. ELISA. Two types 1. Direct 2. Indirect.
  118. Direct ELISA
    directly looking for teh pathogen
  119. Indirect ELISA
    Most commonly used. Looking for antibodies of the pathogen.
  120. Method for indrect ELISA
    Done in a microtiter plate. Number of wells. Inside the bottom of the well it is coated with primary antigen (GP120/41). 1. Individuals blood sample is applied to the microtiter wells. If the anitbody is present it will bind to the antigen in the well. 2. Gently wash away residual antibodies. 3. Add an antibody (secondary antibody has an enzyme bound to it) against the bound antibody (produced by person). The antibody will bind making a sandwich. 4. Wash away residual secondary antibody. 5. Add substrate that will react with antibody to give a product. 6. Visualize product. Give off a product. Normally a color compound (yellow. blue. florescent compound). Can set up dilutions to find the exact concentration of antibodies
  121. Titer
    The concentration of antibodies in a solution
  122. Acute Titer vs Convalescent
    Acute titer is the first one conducted. The convalescent titer is the followup after the intial.
  123. Method for direct ELISA
    Directly looking for the pathogen. The plate is coated with the antibody for the pathogen. Same procedure for direct but starts with antibody then to antigen then secondary antibody.
  124. Protease Inhibitors
    Will inhibit the final step where the long strands of proteins need to be cut. Work mostly on the back end of the virus
  125. Fussion Inhibitors
    Affect adsorption. Will link to CD4 now CD4 is bound up and the virus cant attach.
  126. Immune Based Therapies
    Working on a vaccine. But the virus is constantly changing like influenza.
  127. Symbiotic Control
    You take a beneficial symbiotic organism in a host and genetically modify it to exhibit a CD4. Is mimicking a cell the virus would normally bind to. Uses lactobacillus
  128. Cocktail
    Is a regiment of drugs given to someone who has HIV
  129. Nuceloside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
    Will interfere with compliments of the single strand DNA using an analog to not create the correct DNA.
  130. Soluble CD4
    Acted like a viral sponge. This would just bind up the virus making it bound up. Colloidal.
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Microbiology II Major - Sheet1.csv
2012-02-26 08:36:21
Microbiology Exam

Gene transfer, HIV, Influenza, Viruses
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