Reproductive System

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  1. zygote
    fertilized egg
  2. Why are sex hormones required?
    • development of secondary sex characteristics
    • normal reproduction
  3. gonads
    • testes in male
    • ovaries in female
  4. spermatozoa
    sperm cell
  5. Teh accessory organs of male reproduction are:
    • 1. ducts that carry sperm from the testes to the urethra
    • 2. sex glands that provide secretions that protect and nurture sperm
    • 3. external genitals
  6. tunica albuginea
    tough whitish membrane surrounding the testes
  7. seminiferous tubule
    • long and coiled tubes within the testes
    • sperm develop in the walls and are released into the lumen
    • secretes testosterone
  8. meiosis
    multi-step cell division which results in 4 spermatozoa
  9. Contributions by ducts and accessory sex glands towards semen
    • accessory sex glands
    • seminal vesicles: 60%
    • prostate gland: 30%
    • bulbourethral gland: 5%

    • reproductive duct
    • seminiferous tubules: 5%
  10. Primary spermatocyte
    • product of mitosis
    • undergoes meiosis to create sperm
  11. Testosterone
    • created by interstitial cells of the testes
    • masculinizes
    • promotes and maintains development of male accessory organs
    • stimulates protein anablolism
  12. Name the reproductive ducts
    • epididymis
    • vas deferens
    • ejaculatory duct
    • urethra
  13. epididymis
    • comma shaped reproductive duct that lies above and behind the testes
    • sperm mature within the epididymis
  14. vas deferens
    takes sperm from the epididymis to the abdominal cavity
  15. ejaculatory duct
    passes thru the prostate empties sperm into the urethra
  16. accessory sex glands
    • seminal vesicles
    • prostate
    • bulbourethral glands
  17. components of the penis
    • corpus spongiosum: surrounds urethra
    • corpora cavernosa: spongy erectile tisssue
    • glans: distal end of the penis
  18. oligosperma
    • low sperm count
    • caused by infection, fever, radiation, malnutrition, and high temperature
  19. cryptorchidism
    undescended testes
  20. bening prostatic hypertrophy
    enlargement of prostate gland
  21. brachytherapy
    small radioactive seeds implanted in prostate thate destroy tumors
  22. hypospadias
    urethral meatus opening on underside of the glans or penile shaft
  23. epispadias
    urethral meatus opening on dorsal side of the glans or penile shaft
  24. hydrocele
    • scrotal swelling caused by accumulation of fluid
    • causes: congenital deformities, trauma, infection
  25. inguinal hernia
    scrotal swelling caused by intestines pushing through the abdominal wall
  26. oocyte
    • immature femal sex cell
    • held within ovarian follicles
  27. primary follicles
    • becomes a mature follicle which releases an ovum for fertilization
    • has a layer of granulosa cells around the oocyte
  28. corpus luteum
    • formed after a mature follicle and releases an ovum for ovulation
    • aka yellow body
    • secretes progesterone
  29. oogenesis
    production of female gametes
  30. polar bodies
    • created after meiosis in the formation of gametes
    • cannot be fertilized
  31. ovary functions
    • oogenesis
    • production of estrogen and progesterone
  32. function of estrogen
    • development and maturation of female reproductive organs
    • appearance of pubic hair and breast development
    • develops female body contours; deposits fat on breasts, hip area and under skin
    • initiation of the first menstural cycle
  33. function of progesterone
    • works with estrogen to initiate the menstrual cycle in girls entering puberty
    • stimulates proliferation and vascularization of epithelial lining of uterus
  34. oopherectomy
    surgical removal of teh ovaries
  35. fallopian tubes
    • ducts for the ovaries
    • aka oviducts
    • ovum travels through the fallopian tubes and into the uterus for fertilization
    • fimbrae and cilia within the falllopian tubes move the ovum to the uterus
  36. uterus
    • body: upper portion
    • fundus: top of the uterus where it combines with the fallopian tubes
    • cervix: lower section that leads to the vagina
    • almost all muscle (myometrium)
  37. hysterectomy
    surgical removal of the uterus
  38. endometrium
    membrane lining the uterus
  39. when does menopause start?
    around age 50
  40. When does the menstruation cycle start?
    • begins at 12 - 13
    • repeats every 28 days; happens 13 times/year
  41. episiotomy
    perineum is cut to prevent tearing during childbirth
  42. menarche
    first menses (menstrual flow)
  43. phases of the menstruation cycle
    • menses: menstrual bleeding; beginning of menstrual cycle
    • proliferative phase: after menses; follicles mature and the uterine lining thickens; estrogen levels are at highest
    • secretory phase: uterine lining is thickest; ovaries secrete highest levels of progesterone
  44. What does FSH do?
    • stimulates ovarian follicles to grow and secrete estrogen
    • secreted during the first 7 days
    • causes ovulation
  45. What causes menstruation
    sharp decrease in progesterone and estrogen secretion at the end of the secretory phase
  46. dysmenorrhea
    • menstrual cramps
    • painful period
  47. dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)
    • irregular or excessive uterine bleeding
    • causes: hormonal imbalance, uterine malignancy, polyps, fibroids
    • treatments: NSAIDs and low dose birth control; edometrial ablation; hysterectomy
Card Set:
Reproductive System
2012-02-26 22:07:50

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