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Describe the circumstances leading up to the Crimean War.
The Crimean peninsula was owned by Russia. In the Ottoman empire, there were many religions and the Christian holy lands were located there. The Orthodox and Catholic Christians could not agree on political affairs in three main areas: The place of Jesus' birth, the garden where he prayed before the crucifixion, and the tomb in Jerusalem. Napoleon III sided with teh Catholics and Russia sided with the Orthodox Christians under Nicholas I. The Sultan said that Nicholas should not interfere in these affairs, so Nicholas stationed his army near Crimea. This caused the Sultan to grant the Catholics their wishes and gain the support of the French.
Why was Napoleon III eager to fight in the Crimean War?
He was a new emperor and he had to live up to the expectations of any ruler with the Bonaparte name.
What setbacks did Tsar Nicholas I face when he began the Crimean War?
- He did not have the support of Austria or Prussia (which he thought he would)
- And Britain joined the war (which he thought they would not do)
What was the first move of British and French cooperation :o before the Crimean War? What was the result?
- They sent their fleets to the Dardanelles and Bosporus straits.
- Russia moved its troops to Crimea and the sultan declared war.
In the Crimean War, what was the first British/French war against the Russians?
They sent wanted to capture Fort Sevastopol so they sent their ships to Balaclava.
Why did the British and French armies suck so much?
Their officers paid their ways into the military and they were inept.
Who was Lord Raglam?
And who was Roger Fenton?
- He was the British military leader in the Crimean War.
- He photographed the war.
Who was Pierre Bosquet?
Who was William Russell?
- The French military leader in the Crimean War
- A major french journalist in the war
Explain the shenanigans surrounding the Charge of the Light Brigade.
The Earl of Lucan gave the order for the light brigade (not the heavy brigade) to charge. They went the wrong way, and the Earl of Cardigan (who was actually competent) tried to cut them off. He died along with most of the men.
Who was Florence Nightengale?
She was a famous nurse who improved the condition of healthcare in the military.
Who was Colin Campbell?
He wrote letters to home from the point of view of a soldier. He provided historians with important insights.
When Nicholas I died, who succeeded him? What were his major accomplishments?
Alexander II freed the serfs and ended the Crimean War at the Treaty of Paris.
What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris?
Russia lost its territories west of the Black Sea and what was to become Romania. All of the countries were not allowed to have forts or warships in the area around Crimea.
How did Russian international relations change after the Crimean War?
The Hapsburgs and the Romanovs hated each other. Austria suffered from nationalism problems, and Russia refused to help.
Alexander II abolished serfdom. Why was this not quite as beneficial as it sounds?
The serfs were stuck in huge loans, and Alexander didn't do much else for them.
Name the French Monarchs that were thrown out in these years:
- Charles X
- Louis Phillippe
- Then came Napoleon III
Explain Napoleon III's political institutions.
He wanted equality and authoritarian policies. He had a self-appointed senate and a legislature appointed by universal male suffrage. Still, he dominated the system.
Explain Napoleon III's economic policies.
He wanted to grow the industry and economy. He founded the credit mobilier for industry and the credit foncier for agriculture. France became an exporter of capital. He helped build railroads in France, and he helped out with the suez canal. Production doubled in this time. He implemented forest conservation policies and reclaimed wild lands.
In the 19th century, middle class Italians wanted unification. Mazzini ad Garibaldi wanted what kind of government?
A liberal republic
Garibaldi needed to please the pope in his quest for unification. How did he fix this issue?
He agreed to make a confederation of Italian states.
Who was the Prime Minister of Piedmont Sardinia at the time of Italian unification? What form of government did he want?
- He wanted a unified Italy with a monarchy. This gave him the support of the Nationalists.
Name the properties owned by these groups before Italian unification.
Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Lucca-
- House of Savoy
- Austrian princes
Cavour, who practiced Realpolitik, allied with what nation against the Austrians before Italian Unification? Why did the leader of that nation accept the treaty and what were the terms?
He allied with the French because Napoleon III was Italian and he was a modern dictator so he needed liberal support. Also, Orsini tried to kill Napoleon who was prompted to become more popular with the liberals. They met at Plombieres and Napoleon agreed to help Piedmont if Austria attacked. He was given Nice and Savoy in return. they also agreed that the Pope would be in charge of a confederation when they won because Napoleon wanted to be popular with the Catholics in France.
The Austrians attacked the Italians in 1859. There were two major battles at ________ and ________.
Magenta and Solferino
After the French and Italians defeated the Austrians, what were the effects on Europe?
The Catholics in France were mad, Prussia mobilized in the West, Napoleon signed a treaty with Austria called Villafranca which gave Lombardy to Piedmont and kept Venetia with Austria. They agreed to a pope-led confederation.
When several states in northern Italy held revolutions that dethroned their rulers, what did Piedmont Sardinia do?
They held a plebiscite to bring Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Lucca, and Romagna into Piedmont Sardinia.
Explain Garibaldi's contributions to a unified Italy.
He took Sicily in the South and moved ot the mainland. He displaced the Bourbon rulers and met up with Victor Emmanuel. He conceded his territory for the cause of unification.
What event caused Rome to become part of Italy?
THe Franco-Prussian war made Napoleon III withdraw his troops from Rome and then the Italians took over.
What factors helped Germany industrialize under Bismarck?
They had entrepeneurs, national resources, strong agriculture, good transportation, and a labor union called the zolverein.
What was Wilhelm I's major goal as King of Prussia? Who did he hire to achieve this?
- He wanted to reorganize Parliament
- He hired Otto Von Bismarck
Bismarck strove to make Prussia number one among German states. He did not want a unified Germany.
Yep. That's it.
Explain the Schleswig-Holstein incident.
The King of Denmark owned these German territories and he included them in Denmark. Prussia and Austria got mad (bro) so they went to war. It lasted six months, and the treaty gave the territories to Prussia and Austria. Bismarck set up the government in these areas so that it would cause an argument between Austria and Prussia. This caused the Austro-Prussian War.
After the Austro-Prussian war, what were Wilhelm I's plans? What were Bismarck's feelings on this?
He wanted to conquer Austria, but Bismarck said no and he was supported by Wilhelm's son Frederick.
The decisive battle in the Austo-Prussian War (7 Weeks War) was _____________. Prussia was given what territories?
- Schleiswig-Holstein, Hanover, and a North German Confederation
Explain the circumstances around the Ems Telegram.
Bismarck (Otto) wanted to put Leo Hohenzollern on the Spanish Throne. It ended up not working out and William I gave up on it. He went on vacation and told Otto to publish the telegram that he sent saying that he would not promise not to put Hohenzollern on the throne. Otto removed certain words to insult the French and rile the Prussians. He provoked the French to attack Prussia.
In the Franco-Prussian War, the South of Prussia joined with the North against France. Napoleon was captured at ______ where he abdicated. In Paris, the __________ was formed because the royalists could not agree on a monarch.
What were the results of the Franco Prussian War?
- The North and South of Germany were united, Wilhelm was proclaimed Kaiser in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. Alsace-Lorraine was given to Germany. The united Germany did not include Austria or the Baltic Germans.
- France was given an indemnity of 5 billion francs.
What did English Liberals want in government, foreign policy, and economics?
They wanted other nations to determine their own fates, and they did not want the British government to decide for them. They wanted a laissez-faire economic policy and a small government. They asked for public education, secret ballots when voting, the abolishment of purchasing army ranks. Radical liberals did not want a national church, but the classicals did.