mrt 255

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mrt 255
2012-02-26 19:12:13
Respiratory System

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  1. The hereditary disease process characterized by the excretion of viscous mucus blocking the air passages is
    Cystic Fibrosis
  2. The newborn who experiences underaeration of the lungs resulting from a lack of surfactant has
    Hyaline membrane disease
  3. Croup is a
    Viral infection of the subglottic region of the trachea
  4. Swelling of epiglottic tissue commonly caused by the flu is
  5. An inflammatory exudate caused by pneumococcus causing the affected lung to appear solid is called
    Alveolar pneumonia
  6. Viral and fungal infections causing a thickened interstitium appearing on CT as a honeycomb lung is
    Interstitial pneumonia
  7. A lung abscess is a
    Necotic area containing purulent material
  8. The coronavirus of unknown origin that causes upper and lower respiratory infections that begin with a nonproductive cough is
    Severe acute repiratory syndrome (SARS)
  9. The general term used to describe obstruction of the airways leading to an ineffective exchange of respiratory gases is
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  10. A crippling and debilitating condition resulting from trapped air causing a loss of elasticity in the alveoli
  11. The hallmark of pulmonary overinflation in cases of emphysema is
    Flattened diaphragms
  12. Common allergens causing a widespread narrowing of the airways is
  13. The most common malignant lung neoplasm arising from the mucosa of the bronchial tree is
    Bronchogenic carcinoma
  14. Inflammation caused by bacillus ( mycobacterium) resulting in lesions ( or cavities) that may calcify and are usually found in the apices is
  15. Pulmonary metastatic disease most commonly origingates from a carcinoma in the
  16. Thrombi that develop in the deep venous system of the lower extremity and are trapped in the lung circulation are
    Plumonary emobli
  17. To best demonstrate pulmonary emboli, the noninvasive modality of choice is
    High resolution CT
  18. A condition of diminshed air within the lung associated with reduced lung volume is
  19. Air in the cavity surrounding the lung is known as
  20. The earliest sign of this disease process is blunting of the mornal sharp angle between the diaphragm and the rib cage causing a
    Pleural effusion
  21. Cystic Fibrosis
    • a hereditary disease caused by a defective gene (chromosome 7)
    • žcharacterized by secretion of excessively viscous mucous by all exocrine glands
    • žmucous secreted by mucosa in trachea and bronchi blocks air passages causing area of lung collapse and recurring pulmonary infections
  22. Hyaline Membrane Disease Is also know as
    • Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    • žbreathing disorder of premature newborns in which the alveoli do not remain open due to lack of surfactant
  23. Hyaline Membrane Disease
    surfactant reduces surface tension and is necessary to prevent the collapse of alveoli during exhalation resulting in atelectasis (diminished air within lung – reduced lung volume)
  24. Diaphragmatic Hernia
    • congenital term applied to a variety of birth defects that involve abnormal development of the diaphragm
    • žmalformation of the diaphragm allows the abdominal contents to protrude into the chest impeding proper lung formation
  25. Croup
    • viral infection in young children that produces inflammatory obstructive swelling to subglottic portion of trachea
    • žcharacteristic inspiratory stridor or a barking cough
    • žas it progresses, it causes inflammatory edema and spasm – may obstruct airway
  26. Epiglottitis
    acute infection in children that causes thickening of epiglottic tissue and surrounding pharyngeal structures
  27. Sinusitis
    • inflammation of the mucous membrane of one or more paranasal sinuses
    • žcan be caused by microbial infection, allergies, nasal polyps or deviated septum
    • acute or chronic sinusitis causes mucosal thickening, which appears as a soft tissue density lining the walls of the sinuses
    • žhorizontal beam required to demonstrate air fluid levels
  28. Pneumonia
    • acute infection or inflammation of the lung mostly commonly caused by bacteria or viruses
    • žsymptoms can include fever, productive cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue and general malaise
  29. Alveolar Pneumonia
    inflammatory exudate replaces air in the alveoli – affected area is radiopague
  30. Alveolar Pneumonia
    A fluid rich in protein and cellular elements that oozes out of blood vessels due to inflammation and is deposited in nearby tissues.
  31. Bronchopneumonia
    inflammation originates in airways and spreads to alveoli – produces small patches of consolidation
  32. Interstitial Pneumonia
    inflammation involving the walls and lining of alveoli and alveoli septa – produces a linear or reticular pattern
  33. Aspiration Pneumonia
    • caused by aspiration of esophageal or gastric contents – appears as multiple alveolar densities
    • žoccurs in patients with neuromuscular swallowing disturbances
    • žcan also be related to general anesthetic, trauma, alcohol abuse
  34. Tuberculosis
    • bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs
    • žspread by coughing
    • žTB was thought to be eradicated in North America, but has resurfaced as a stronger, more resistant strain that is more difficult to treat
  35. Tuberculosis
    may resolve
    completely but if necrosis and caseation develop, some fibrous scarring occurs
  36. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • includes several conditions in which chronic obstruction of airways leads to ineffective exchange of respiratory gases and makes breathing difficult
    • includes bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis and pneumoconiosis
  37. Chonic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    predisposing factors include cigarette smoking, infection, air pollution, and occupational exposure to harmful substances
  38. COPD
    cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD
  39. Emphysema
    • obstructive and destructive changes in small airways lead to a dramatic increase in volume of air in the lungs
    • žair enters lungs but bronchial narrowing and loss of elasticity make it difficult for the patient to exhale leading to over-inflation of lungs with eventual rupture of alveolar septa
  40. Emphysema
    Radiographic appearance:
    • flattening of the diaphragm
    • žincrease size and lucency of retrosternal air space (barrel chest)
  41. Pulmonary Metastases
    may develop from hematogenous or lymphatic spread from musculoskeletal sarcomas, myeloma, and carcinomas of the breast, urogenital tract, thyroid, and colon
  42. Pulmonary Metastases
    Radiographic appearance:
    • multiple, relatively well circumscribed, round or oval nodules throughout the lungs
    • žpattern may vary from fine miliary nodules to huge “cannonball” lesions
  43. Pulmonary Embolism
    • embolus (clot, air bubble, fat from broken bones or a piece of debris) transported by the blood stream to the lungs
    • žmost pulmonary emboli arise from thrombi that develop in the deep venous system of the lower extremities
    • žmay be a complication from surgery of the abdomen or pelvis, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, tumors, vascular injury, lower extremity fractures
    • žcan cause pulmonary infarct
  44. Pulmonary Embolism
    Radiographic appearance:
    • chest x-ray will appear normal or non-specific
    • —CT – appears as filling defect or occlusion (pulmonary arteriogram)
    • —MRI
  45. Atelectasis
    • condition in which there is diminished air within the lung
    • žmost commonly the result of bronchial obstruction, air is unable to enter that part of the lung supplied by the obstructed bronchus
  46. Atelectasis
    also occurs post-operatively
    žreversible and preventable with the use of hyperventilation and incentive spirometry
  47. Subcutaneous Emphysema
    • caused by penetrating or blunt injuries that disrupt the lung and parietal pleura and force air into the tissues of the chest wall
    • žappear radiographically as streaks of lucency outlining muscle bundles of chest wall
  48. Pneumothorax
    • air in pleural cavity that results in partial or complete collapse of the lung
    • žcauses can include trauma, result of eg. lung biopsy, complication of emphysema or spontaneous event for healthy, tall, thin, young male
  49. Pneumothorax
    Radiographic appearance:
    • hyperlucent area in which all pulmonary markings are absent
    • žradiographs should be taken with patient in the upright position
  50. Flail Chest
    • paradoxical movement of a segment of chest wall
    • possible complication of fractures of 3 or more ribs anteriorly and posteriorly within each rib
  51. Pleural Effusion
    • accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
    • žcauses can include congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, infection, pleurisy, neoplasms
  52. Pleural Effusion
    Radiographic appearance:
    blunting of sharp costophrenic angle
  53. Pulmonary Edema
    • abnormal accumulation of fluid in lung tissue
    • common cause left-sided heart failure
  54. Pulmonary Edema
    • Radiographic appearance:
    • accentuation of vascular markings about the hila