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2012-02-26 18:47:14

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  1. linnaeus
    developed binomial nomenclature, classification made up of nested taxonomic categories
  2. phylogeny
    genologic relationships of evolutionary relationships among organisms
  3. taxonomy
    classifying and naming organisms
  4. phylogenetic analysis
    study of relationships among organisms
  5. phylogenetic tree
    tree that portrays history of organism using branches
  6. systematics
    field of biology that regroups taxonomy and phylogenetic analysis
  7. phenetics
    tradational systematics that classifies organisms based on theri morphological or functional similarities
  8. cladistics
    classification of organism based on evolutionary relationship using clades as units of classification rather than traditional taxa
  9. clade
    all organisms descended from a common ancestor and this common ancestor
  10. outgroup
    taxon that diverged from a group of other taxa before these diverged further
  11. monophyletic group
    group of organisms that shares a common ancestor
  12. paraphyletic group
    a group of organisms that derived from a common ancestor but that does not include all the descendants
  13. cladogram
    phylogenetic tree based on true clades
  14. node
    a fork in a branch that marks speciation
  15. speciation
    evolutionary events that replaces one parent species with two new species
  16. cladogenesis
    generation of two new species from one ancestral species, evolved at a node
  17. anagenesis
    the gradual change of an ancestral species into a new species withouth a speciation event, no node
  18. ancestral trait
    a trait that members of a monophyletic group inherited from their common ancestor
  19. plesiomorphy
    some members have lost an ancestral trait as a derived trait
  20. derived trait
    a trait not found in a common ancestor but has evolved with a clade
  21. apomorphy
    has evolved with a clade in one or more of the descendants
  22. innovation
    new trait appears in the fossil record. ex nails, claws
  23. synapomorphy
    derived trait shared among several species and hypothesized to be inherited
  24. two species that look alike arent more closely related depends on
    how recently they had a common ancestor
  25. homologous trait
    ancestral trait shared by several descendants
  26. homoplasious trait
    independently evolved shared derived traits without a single ancestral origin
  27. hennig
    made it clear that only uniquely derived traits are helpful in determining monophyletic groups and clades, synapomorphy
  28. convergent evolution
    homoplasious trait, independently evolved without an ancestor
  29. principle of parsimony
    the phylogeny with the least number of innovations is most likely the true phylogeny, more parsimonious having an ancestor that with opposable toes that then devlop non opposable thumb in human lineage
  30. molecular clock
    if the rate of molecular evolution is constant we can use D=2rt , this shows age of lineages and geological evidence