Micriobio 2

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Morgan.liberatore
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137895
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Micriobio 2
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2012-02-26 18:59:27
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Micribio
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Micribio
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  1. What do all cells come from?
    LUCA
  2. What are the 3 domains of life?
    Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya
  3. What are the 2 types of Prokaryotes?
    Bacteria, Archea
  4. What are the 3 properties of all cells?
    Compartmentalization and metabolism, Growth, Evolution
  5. What does evolution result in?
    Mutations
  6. What are 3 properties of some cells?
    Motility, Differentiation, Communication
  7. How do most cells communicate?
    Many cells communicate or interact by means of chemicals that are released or taken up.
  8. What is metabolism?
    Generation of precursors of macromolecules
  9. Which is bigger, eukaryotic cells or bacteria?
    Eukaryotic cells are much bigger than bacteria?
  10. Why is there an upper limit on the size of cells?
    As size increases, the surface: volume ratio decreases and if the surface is not big enough, it will not be able to exchange with the outside- not enough nutrients
  11. Why is there a lower limit on the size of cells?
    Because its needs to grow and replicate
  12. What is the main difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
    Prokaryotes have a nucleus and nucleolus
  13. Where is DNA kept in eukaryotes?
    DNA is in the cytoplasm and packaged in the nucleoid
  14. What is the nucleoid?
    A grouping of DNA, not surrounded by a membrane
  15. Where are ribosomes located?
    Can be in the cytoplasm, or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
  16. What direction does active transport go in?
    Active transport goes against the gradient
  17. What is an integral membrane protein?
    A membrane protein that spans the entire membrane
  18. What is the purpose of the cytoplasmic membrane?
    Stops things from coming in and out, it is the reason that the inside of the cell an remain different from the outside
  19. What are porins?
    Transport by diffusion, and differentiate only by the size of the substrate
  20. What are the 3 purposes of the cytoplasmic membrane?
    Permeability barrier, Protein anchor, Energy conservation
  21. Does the phospholipid bilayer require energy to make?
    No, the phospholipids naturally arrange themselves into a bilayer
  22. What type of linkage do bacteria and eukarya use to link fatty acids to the glycerol backbone in the phospholipid bilayer?
    Ester linkage
  23. What type of linkage do archea used to link isoprene to the glycerol backbone in the phospholipid bilayer?
    Ether linkage
  24. What is the main difference between Bacteria/eukarya and archea with reference to the phospholipid bilayer?
    Bacteria/Eukarya= Ester linkage and fatty acids, Archea= Ether linkage and isoprene
  25. Do any bacteria have monolayers?
    No
  26. What substance is linked to the glycerol backbone in archea?
    Isoprene via an ether linkage
  27. Which species can form a lipid monolayer?
    Archea
  28. Why can archea form a lipid monolayer?
    Isoprene tails can attach to each other, whereas fatty acids cannot
  29. Do archea always have lipid monolayers?
    No, they could also have lipid bilayers
  30. How is the lipid bilayer stabilized in eukaryotes?
    Stabilized by sterol
  31. How is the lipid bilayer stabilized in prokaryotes?
    Hopanoids
  32. What sterol is found in animals?
    Cholesterol
  33. Do prokaryotes have a nucleus?
    No, the genetic information is stored in the nucleoid, which has no membrane
  34. What is a ribosome composed of?
    Composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins
  35. What do ribosomes do?
    Translate mRNA into amino acid chains to form proteins
  36. Why are prokaryote and eukaryote ribosomes so different in size?
    Because they are formed of different proteins and different RNA
  37. Which ribosomes are bigger, prokaryote ribosomes, or eukaryote?
    Eukaryote ribosomes are much bigger because they are made of more proteins
  38. How do we measure the size of ribosomes?
    Svedburg units
  39. What is a Svedburg unit?
    Describes the rate of sedimentation of a particle in an ultracentrifuge.
  40. What is the number of svedburg units proportional to?
    Size, shape and density?
  41. Do Svedburg units follow a linear relationship?
    No
  42. How does ultracentrifugation work?
    Precipitate small molecules, molecules migrate in solution based on density, size and shape
  43. How much force does an ultracentrifuge use?
    Up to 100 000 gravities
  44. What gives cells structure?
    Microtubules, microfilaments, and actin
  45. What is a golgi complex responsible for?
    Distribution of proteins
  46. What are transcription factors?
    Proteins that dictate which genes will be expressed
  47. How many lipid bilayers does the nucleus of eukaryotes have?
    2 bilayers (double membrane)
  48. Is RNA translated in the nucleus?
    No, transcription occurs inside the nucleus, but the RNA must be transported outside in order for translation to occur
  49. What are the 2 types of chromatin in eukaryotes?
    Euchromatin, Heterchromatin
  50. What is Euchromatin?
    Loosely packed, actively transcribed
  51. What is heterochromatin?
    Densely packed, low level of transcription
  52. What is the purpose of histoproteins?
    Package DNA
  53. Why is heterochromatin not actively transcribed?
    It is very densely packed and the polymerase cannot get to it
  54. What types of cells have a cell wall?
    Cells of plants, algae, fungi- Cell walls are absent in animal cells and most protozoa
  55. What is the purpose of a cell wall?
    Forms a tough, rigid barrier that helps protect the cell and gives it shape
  56. What is the cell wall of eukaryotes usually composed of?
    Polysaccharides
  57. What substance is the cell wall of plants, most algae and some fungi usually composed of?
    Cellulose
  58. What substance is the cell wall of fungi composed of?
    Chitin
  59. What is the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum composed of?
    Phospholipid bilayer
  60. What is the different between the rough ER and the smooth ER?
    Rough ER is studded with ribosomes
  61. What is the purpose of the rough ER?
    Protein synthesis
  62. What is the purpose of the smooth ER?
    Synthesis of lipids
  63. How is the nucleus attached to the endoplasmic reticulum?
    Nucleus shares one membrane with ER
  64. What is the Golgi apparatus?
    It is a set of membrane compartments involved in further processing proteins and distribution
  65. How does the Golgi apparatus transport proteins?
    Proteins are packaged in vesicles, tagged with their destination and are transported to where they are required
  66. What are lysosomes?
    Internal vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes required for degradation of materials brought in by phagocytosis and endocytosis
  67. Do all protozoa have mitochondria?
    No, only some do
  68. What is the main purpose of mitochondria?
    Where most of the ATP is produced
  69. What does the outer membrane of the mitochondria look like?
    Contains many porins so the membrane is very permeable to small molecules
  70. What does the inner membrane of the mitochondria look like?
    75% proteins, 25% lipids.  Contains transport proteins, enzymes, cytochromes, ATPases
  71. What happens in the mitochondrial matrix?
    TCA cycle
  72. What kind of ribosomes does the mitochondria contain?
    70s
  73. What is oxidation?
    Removal of electrons
  74. What is reduction?
    Addition of electrons
  75. Why must redox reactions occur in pairs?
    Because electrons cannot exist in solution
  76. Where are chloroplasts found?
    Phototrophic eukaryotes
  77. What are thylakoids?
    Closed system of interconnecting sacks and tubules
  78. What is a stroma?
    Circular DNA, 70s ribosomes, emzymes of the calvin cycle
  79. Do chloroplasts carry their own DNA?
    Yes
  80. What do thylakoids contain?
    Enzymes and pigments that harvest light energy and the membrane-bound ATPases that use the converted energy to produce ATP
  81. What do thylakoids produce from light?
    ATP and carbohydrates
  82. How are thylakoids and mitochondria similar?
    Both have 70s ribosomes, double membranes, and own circular DNA
  83. What does the cytoskeleton of eukaryotes do?
    Gives cell shape, organizes cytoplasm and allows motility
  84. What are the three components of a cytoskeleton?
    Microtubules, actin filament, intermediate filament
  85. What are microtubules composed of?
    Alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin
  86. What is actin filament composed of?
    Actin
  87. What is Intermediate filament composed of?
    Keratin, desmin, vimentin
  88. Do prokaryotes also have cytoskeletons?
    Yes
  89. What is the most important component of the cytoskeleton?
    Micotubules
  90. How are microtubules formed?
    Alpha and beta tubulins for dimers, which are then organized into a hollow helix-like formation
  91. Where do microtubules grow from?
    Grown from the centrosome
  92. Where in the cell are intermediate filaments found?
    Anywhere
  93. What do microtubules serve as?
    Microtubules serve as highways for the transport of organelles and vesicles around the cytoplasm.
  94. What ‘walks’ along the microtubules?
    Kinesin and dynein are two proteins that attach to vesicles or organelles and ‘walk’ on microtubules, transporting their cargo to where they are required
  95. What are microtubules the components of?
    Centrioles and centrosomes
  96. What is a 9+0 construction?
    A centriole is made of 9 sets of one complete, and 2 partial microtubules
  97. Where are centrioles located within the cell?
    Close to the nucleus
  98. What are centrioles called when they are close to the cytoplasmic membrane?
    Basal Body
  99. How do microtubules relate to meiosis?
    They form the spindles that pull the chromosomes apart
  100. What type of construction do flagella have?
    9+2 configuration
  101. What types of cells contain flagella?
    • Mostly protozoa- some animal cells
    • What do flagella and cilia do?
    • Help cells move
  102. What is the main difference between cilia and flagella in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes?
    In eukaryotes, cilia and flagella are covered y cytoplasmic membrane, but are not in prokaryotes
  103. What allows the growth of cilia and flagella?
    Basal bodies

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