abnormal psych test 1

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abnormal psych test 1
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2012-02-26 19:02:01
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  1. psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response
    psychological disorder
  2. psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear if an object or situation
    phobia
  3. actions that are unexpected and often evaluated negatively because they differ form typical or usual behavior
    abnormal behavior
  4. scientific study of psychological disorders
    psychopathology
  5. mental health professional expected to apply scientific methods to his or her work.
    scientist-practitioner
  6. original complaint reported by the client to the therapist
    presenting problem
  7. details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder
    clinical description
  8. number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time
    prevalence
  9. number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period
    incidence
  10. pattern of development and change of a disorder over time
    course
  11. predicted development of a disorder over time
    prognosis
  12. cause or source of a disorder
    etiology
  13. religious ritual that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body
    exorcism
  14. treatment practices that focus on social and cultural factors as well as psychological influences
    psychosocial treatment
  15. psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possibly in normal environments
    moral therapy
  16. mid 19th century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment
    mental hygiene movement
  17. assessment and therapy pioneered by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts.
    psychoanalysis
  18. explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaption derived from experimental psychology
    behaviorism
  19. part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person
    unconscious
  20. rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy.
    catharsis
  21. complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to acount for the development and struccture of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces
    psychoanalytic model
  22. in psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychic entity present at birth representing basic drives
    id
  23. in psychoanalysis, the psychic entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives
    ego
  24. in psychoanalysis, the psychic entity representing the internalized moral standards of parents and society
    superego
  25. in psychoanalytic theory, a struggle among the id, ego, and superego
    intrapsychic conflicts
  26. common pattern of behavior, often an adaptive coping style when it occurs in moderation, observed in response to a particular situation.
    defense mechanisms
  27. the fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally beause of their lust for their mothers
    castration anxiety
  28. obsolete psychodynamic term for a psychological disorder thought to result from an unconscious conflict and the anxiety it causes
    neurosis
  29. modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them
    object relations
  30. accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung
    collective unconscious
  31. psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious.
    free association
  32. therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning either an MD or a PHD degree and receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training
    psychoanalyst
  33. psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents.
    transference
  34. process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences
    self-actualizing
  35. approach to the study of psychopathology that holds psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors
    multidemensional integrative approach
  36. long deoxryibonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, the basic physical unit of heredity that appears as a location on a chromosome
    genes
  37. hypothesis that both an inherited tendency and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder
    diathesis-stress model
  38. susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder
    vulnerability
  39. hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder
    reciprocal gene-environment model
  40. the study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that alter the phenotypic expression of genes
    epigenetics
  41. study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, throughts, and emotions
    neuroscience
  42. individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting information
    neuron
  43. space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next
    synaptic cleft
  44. chemical that crosses the synaptic cleft between nerves cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next.
    neurotransmitters.
  45. chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands
    hormone
  46. neurotransmitter current or neural pathway in the brain
    brain circuits
  47. a chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neutrotransmitter by imitating its effects
    agonist
  48. chemical substance that produces effets opposite those of a particular neutrotransmitter
    inverse agonist
  49. a chemical substance that decresases or blocks the effects of neurotransmitters
    antagonist
  50. action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft
    reuptake
  51. amino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different
    glutamate
  52. leading to action
    neurons
  53. neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synaptic cleft and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, espeically generalized anxiety
    GABA
  54. neurotransmitter involved in processing of information and coordination of moment, as well as inhibition and restraint
    serotonin
  55. neurotransmitter active in the central and peripheral nervous systesm, controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiriation, among other fuctions
    norepinephrine
  56. neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure-seeking behaviors
    dopamine
  57. field of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information
    cognitive science
  58. Martin Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in lives
    leanred helplessness
  59. learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and consequences of that behavior
    modeling (observational learning)
  60. ability adaptive for evoltuion, allowing ertain associations to be learned more readily than others
    prepared learning
  61. condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events despite acting in response to them
    implicit memory
  62. biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body's resource to resist or flee a threat
    flight or fight response
  63. pattern of action ilicited by an external event a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response
    emotion
  64. enduring period of emotionality
    mood
  65. conscious, subjective aspects of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time
    affect
  66. developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes
    equifinality
  67. systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder
    clinical assessment
  68. process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder
    diagnosis
  69. degree to which a measurement is consistent
    reliability
  70. degree to which a technique measures what it purports to measure
    validity
  71. process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions
    standardization
  72. relatively coarse preliminary test of a client's judgment, orientation to time and place, and emotional and mental state: typically conducted during an initial interview
    mental status exam
  73. measuring, observing, and systematically evaluation the client's thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem situation or context
    behavior assessment
  74. the action by which clients observe and record their own behaviors as either an assessment of a problem and its change or a treatment procedure that makes them more aware of their responses
    self-monitoring
  75. psychoanalytically based measure that presents ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses can reveal their unconscious conflicts
    projective tests
  76. self-report questionaire that assessments personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to themselves
    personality inventories
  77. score on a intelligence test estimating a person's deviation from average test performance
    intelligence quotient (IQ)
  78. assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual's performance on behavioral tasks
    neuropsychological testing
  79. assessment error in which pathology is reported when none is actually represent
    false positive
  80. assessment error in which no pathology is noted when one is actually present
    false negative
  81. sophisticated computer-aided procedure that allows nonintrusive examination of nervous system structure and function
    neuroimaging
  82. system of namin and classification in science
    taxonomy
  83. classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena
    nosology
  84. in a naming system, the actual labels or names that are applied
    nomeclature
  85. system of categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics
    prototypical approach
  86. the extent to which a disorder would be found among a patient's relatives
    familial aggregation
  87. presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time
    comorbidity
  88. approach to research that employs subjects who are similar to clinical clients, allowing replication of a clinical problem under controlled conditions
    analog model
  89. observable charactistics or behaviors of an individual
    phenotype
  90. the individual displaying the traitor characteristic being studied
    proband
  91. brain circuit in the limbic system that responds to threat signals inhibiting activity and causing anxiety
    behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
  92. severe reaciton immediately following a terrifying event, often including amnesia about the event, emotional numbing, and derealizations
    acute stress disorder
  93. hormone affets the brain and is increasingly the focus of study in psychopathology
    neurohormones
  94. thinking errors by depressed people negatively focused in three areas: themselves, their immediate world, and their future
    depressive cognitive triad

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