Card Set Information

2012-02-26 20:42:06
Genitourinary System

Show Answers:

  1. A rare anomaly which a kidney fails to develop is called
    Unilateral renal agenesis
  2. What is an ectopic kidney
    A kidney that is not located in the normal location
  3. What is the most common type of fusion anomaly
    Horse shoe kidney
  4. When the kidneys are fused at their lower poles, they are termed a
    Horseshoe kidney
  5. Cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the urinary bladder is called a
  6. What is a ureterocele
    A cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the urinary bladder
  7. A nonsuppurative inflammatory process of the kidney and renal pelvis is termed
  8. A suppurative inflammatory process of the kidney and renal pelvis is termed
  9. Which imaging modality is the most accurate in detecting renal calculi
  10. What term is applied to a renal calculus that completely fills the renal pelvis
    Staghorn calculus
  11. What is the cause of hydronephrosis
    Blockage above the level of the bladder
  12. Blockage above the level of the bladder causes dilatation of the renal pelvicalyceal system which is called
  13. What is the most common abdominal neoplasm of infancy and childhood
    wilms tumor
  14. Polypoid defects and bladder wall thickening are indicative of
    Bladder carcinoma
  15. Diagnostic Imaging of the Urinary System
    • Cystogram
    • IVU (intravenous urogram)
    • CT
    • renal colic (no contrast)
    • renal masses (contrast enhanced)
    • terms
    • hypodense
    • isodense
    • hyperdense
    • view
    • CT images (from toes to head)
    • axial, coronal, and sagittal reconstructions
    • Ultrasound
    • hypodense
    • isodense
    • hyperdense
    • homogeneous
    • heterogeneous
  17. Duplication
    varies from simple bifid pelvis to a completely double pelvis, ureter, and ureterovesical orifice
  18. A horseshoe kidney is described as:
    malrotated kidneys that are fused at their lower poles
  19. Ureterocele
    cystic dilatation of the distal ureter near its insertion into the urinary bladder
  20. Cystitis
    • inflammation of urinary bladder
    • may be caused by bacterial infection
  21. Cystitis
    Radiographic appearance:
    excretory urography demonstrates decreased bladder size and irregularity of bladder wall with chronic cystitis
  22. Renal Colic
    • severe pain that can present suddenly and without warning
    • usually caused by stones in the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter
    • pain is caused by dilatation, stretching and spasm of the ureter
    • haematuria (blood in the urine) often present
  23. Renal Calculi
    Radiographic appearance:
    • 80% of renal stones contain enough calcium to be radiopaque
    • common exams to assess are CT and ultrasound
    • IVU performed if CT not availabledilatation of renal pelvis and calyces and ureters will occur to point of obstruction
  24. Renal Calculi
    asymptomatic until they lodge in a ureter and cause partial obstruct
  25. Hydronephrosis
    • dilatation of renal pelvis and calyces caused by obstruction
    • caused by calculi in ureter, urethral strictures, pelvic tumors, enlarged prostratebilateral hydronephrosis is most often indicative of obstruction at the base of urinary bladder or ureth
  26. Treatment Procedures – RENAL CALCULI
    • hydrate and wait (manage pain)
    • (Extracorporeal shock wave) Lithotripsy
    • O.R
    • percutaneous nephrolithotomy
    • follow up in fluoro dept.
    • ureterscopic stone removal
    • basket extraction
    • lithotripsy
    • stent insertion
  27. Renal Cyst
    • fluid filled benign mass, usually unilocular
    • usually incidental finding
  28. Renal Cyst
    Radiographic appearance:
    • IVU performed shows radiopague rim surrounding lucent cyst “beak sign”
    • common exams to demonstrate are ultrasound and CT
  29. Renal Cyst
    CT image:
    • near water density lesion (CT #) interfaced with kidney
    • very circular shape
  30. Polycystic Kidney Disease
    inherited disorder in which multiple cysts of varying size cause lobulated enlargement of kidneys and progessive renal impairment
  31. Polycystic Kidney Disease
    Radiographic appearance:
    • IVU would demonstrate enlarged kidney and mottled presence of multiple lucent lesions
    • Ultrasound, CT, and MRI also used to assess
  32. Nephroblastoma ( Wilms’ Tumor)
    • malignant tumor usually presenting before five years of age
    • lesion arises from embryonic renal tissue
    • becomes large, palpable mass
  33. Bladder Carcinoma
    • tumor originates in epithelium
    • usually seen in men more than 50 yrs of age
  34. Bladder Carcinoma
    Radiographic appearance:
    • IVU would show polypoid defects with wall thickening
    • CT and MRI also used to assess
    • linear calcifications of tumor may show KUB exam
  35. A neurogenic bladder is:
    bladder dysfunction caused by neurologic damage
  36. Vesicoureteral Reflux
    • abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back into the ureters
    • can cause swelling in the ureter and kidney
    • infection common symptom of VUR
  37. Vesicoureteral Reflux
    Radiographic Appearance:
    voiding cystourethrogram
  38. Vesicovaginal fistula is
    abnormal connection between the urinary tract and the vagina
  39. Renovascular hypertension is:
    high blood pressure due to renal artery stenosis caused by arteriosclerosis