Animal Physiology 2
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What parts make up the headgut?
mouth and pharynx
What parts make up the foregut?
esophagus and stomach
what parts make up the midgut?
small intestines where proteins, lipids, and carbs are broken down and processed in the blood
job of the hindgut?
absorption and storage of water
1/2 of the organic material in mammals is ...
Over half of the human body is composed of water, the rest consists of ....(2 things)
proteins and lipids
The amino acids that cannot be adequately synthesized are called (------) because there is an "essential" requirment that they be acquired from food or outside resource
Essential Amino Acids
Even though 78% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas, N2, it is not avalible as the kind of nitrogen needed for life. it is ( ) resource
Since Nitrogen is a limited resource, plants and algae can use ammonuim and nitrates as a nitrogen source - where do they come from?
- plants = ammonium and nitrates come from the ground
- Plants make it && animals eat the plants
Humans are unable to synthesize 8 of 20 amino acids, they obtain them by....
eating them in food
What are the 2nd most abudant organic compound in mammals?
Lipids are very diverse and are primarly - hydrophillic or phobic?
- Lipids: fatty acids, oil fats
Lipids are acquired in the diet from what?
Lipids are acquired from carbs and proteins
Lipids can be stored. Certain lipids are essential amino acids. What are some essential fatty acids?
Omega 3 and 6
What macromolecule functions as an energy source and CAN be synthezied by mammals' bodies?
Carbs are needed for the body for energy source but are Not an .( ) amino acid?
carbs are not essential
Vitamins are organic molecules which are essential ...what else is essential related to this topic and where can you obtain both
Minerals and Vitamins ARE essential amino acids which can be aquired through diet
Buffalos will travel to the other side of the ecosystem (move to the South) just for the minerals in the rain water which flow into the soil.
It always rains in the North where they usually live but it's worth the trip across for the nutrients
What are three ways of feeding:
- 1) Attack of prey item
- 2) Sepension feeding
- 3) Symbiosis w/ Microbes
Many snails feed by scraping organic material off surfaces such as rocks using their ....(name)
- Snails have a radula: a rod like teeth structure to scrap off and ingest algae
Cone snails for example, can lure fish over using something that looks like food where they fish comes over and than....
snails spear the fish and inject venom which paralyzes the fish
What is the name of the venom posion cone fish inject into their prey and what is it made from?
Conotoxin: short peptides which posion the fishs' nerual muscular membrane paraylzing the fish
Suspension feeding: ingestion of small organisms in water
Who does this and why ?
The largest animals are suspension feeders because this is the best way to obtain the most energy since the energy isn't being spent traveling up the food chain
How does baleen whale's feeding work?
Baleen whales contain carotin bristles where they take in water (with fish & plant food) which gets stuck in the baleen plate, where the whale will lick it off their teeth and eat it :)
Autotrophic microbes: synthesize organic molecules from inorganic sources
What are the two kind of auto. microbes?
Chemosynthetic and Photosynthetic
the reef building corals are an example of ( ) autotrophs
How do chemosynthetic autotrophs obtain energy?
obtain energy from energy-releasing inorganic chemical reactions
The Reef building corals have a symbiotic reletionship with photosyntheic autotrophs which use energy from the ...
Chemosynthetic Autotrophs Do NOT rely on...
Hydrothermal vents are cracks in the ocen floor where chemo auto bacteria are key to the vent communities. how doe they obtain energy?
Use energy from energy releasing reactions
Sulfate (requires heat energy) --> Reduced to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) --> SO4 which releases energy
chemosyn organisms extract and reverse the product
Sulfate is reduced to ( ) by the heat of the earth
- H2S hydrogen sulfide
- THEN you oxidize H2S to release energy making SO4 (2-)
Hydrothermal vent worms which live in the deep dark HOT smelly cracks of the ocean floor rely on ....
- chemo autotrophs for nutrition
- Trophosome: tissue where bacteria resides
Heterotrophic microbes require organic molecules for energy --> these microbes provide the ablity to ....?
microbes can often break down food that animals are unable to break down themselves
What are fermenters animals wise
Fermenters are animals that have symbiotic reletionship with fermentating microbes
What is the Rumen?
the rumen is an enlarged compartment of the stomach where fermentation takes place
Why would hindgut fermenters such as a rabbit, eat their feces for nutrients?
The hindguy is posterior to the acid stomach and small intestines. Unlike foregut fermenters who can synthesize vitamin B, essential aa, and recycle nitrogen - hind gut fermintators lack such ablility. The nutrients are not passed through the small intestines and tends to be expelled in the poop. For an animal to gain essentail amino acids, the cellulose proteins must be digested; yet when microbials are located in the cecum, microes are eliminated undigested.
(in short) Digestion involves:
splitting up ingested foods into smaller chemical components (amino acids)
(in short) absorption involves:
entry of molecules into living tissue from outside
Within vertibrates, digestion occurs before absorption
The pharynx (a part of the headgut) involves:
grinding and lubricating food - preparing food for digestion
The Esophagus (a part of the foregut) involves:
moves food to the stomach where acid is secreted
The stomach does what (foregut)
stores food and breaks up food
Midgut (small intestines) are the main site of ....
Hindgut (large intestines) involve:
absorption and storage
produce digestive enzymes into the midgut
secretes bile, which plays a emulsifying role in the digestion of lipids
Peripheral --> CNS
CNS --> peripheral
AP is iniated @ axon hilock, where graded potentials can add up --> maybe leading to an AP --> the receptor may lead to different kinds of energy
Vesibular receptor: tells you what
allows animals to know what orientation they are in --> like being upside down
Sensory receptor cells convert stimulus energy into an electrical field --> (called)
What are the two kinds of sensor transduction and what are their MO's ?
ionic and metabolic
Iontropic: stimulus causes opening of ion channel
Metabotropic: response is indirect --> series of event occur
Sensory receptor molecules initiate the transduction of the stimulus to produce an electrical response called ....
- receptor potential
- Nervous system communicated through electrical signals
Responces of the receptors:
- Tonic = continue to respond (skeletal muscles)
- Phasic = shut off, boost of AP but then turn off (you stop thinking about how your sitting in a chair)
Mechnoreception refers to :
touch and pressure
Graded Potential --> change in membrane potential --> if stronger repitition --> Action Potential when neurotransmitter is released
this refers too :
Tactile (touch) sensitive bristles in insects : when the bristles move, cauing the tip of the cell to be moved or strengthened...the stretching opens stretch receptors which refers to what kind of overall receptor
Drosophila NOMPC channel: opens in responce to stretch
channel opens in response to strethch & allow the flow of cations through the channel
The net inward current carried by cations produces a depolaring receptor potential
Meissner's corpuscle, Merkel disk, Ruffini ending, and Pacinian all refer to what reception in mammals?
- Touch !
- 4 different types of neurons = all involve touch
Vestibular organs and hearing provides information about ....
- accerlation and motion
- specialize receptors
- --> hair cells
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