Joints-lecture part 1

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Joints-lecture part 1
2012-02-27 22:14:01
chap joints part

joints chapter for a and p lecture part 1, types of joints
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  1. Define articulation
    site where two or more bones meet
  2. Functions of joints
    • -Give skeleton mobility
    • -hold skeleton together (sometimes protective)
  3. How are joints functionally classified?
    Based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint
  4. What are the functional classification of joints

    Amphiarthroses--slightly movable

    Diarthroses--freely movable
  5. How are joints classified by structure?
    Based on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is preent
  6. What are the structural classifications for joints?
    • 1. Fibrous
    • 2. Cartilaginous
    • 3. Synovial
  7. Fibrous Joints
    • -Most are synarthtrotic
    • -No joint cavity
    • - Bones are joined by a dense fibrous connective tissue
    • -amount of movement determined by the length of the connective tissue uniting the bones
    • -3 types:
    • Sutures
    • Syndesmoses
    • Gomphoses
  8. Fibrous Joints
    Only found in the skull

    • -rigid interlocking joints containing short connective tisue fibers
    • -allow for growth during youth
    • -In middle age, sutures ossify and are called synotoses
  9. Fibrous Joints
    -bones connected by ligaments (bands of fibrous tissue)

    -movement varies from immovable to slightly movable

    examples: synarthrotic distal tibiofibular joint, diarthrotic interosseous connection between radius and ulna
  10. Fibrous Joints
    -Peg in socken joints of teeth in alveolar sockets

    -fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament
  11. Carilaginous Joints
    • - joints untied by cartilage
    • -no joint cavity
    • -two types:
    • 1. synchondroses
    • 2. Symphyses
  12. Cartilaginous Joints
    • - a bar or plate of hylaine cartilage unites the bones
    • - all are synarthrotic

    examples: epiphyseal plate in long bones of children, joint between the first rib and sternum
  13. Cartilagious Joints:
    • - hyaline cartilage covers articulating surfaces and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage
    • -strong, flexible
    • -amphiarthroses

    examples: intervertebral discs and pubic symphesis
  14. Synovial Joints
    • -All are diarthrotic
    • -Include all limb joints; most joints of the body
  15. Synovial Joints
    Distinguising features
    • 1. Articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage
    • -covers opposing bone surfaces

    • 2. Joint (synovial) cavity: small potential space
    • -contains a small amount of synovial fluid

    • 3. Articular (joint) capsule: encloses joint cavity
    • -outer fibrous capsule of dense irregular connective tissue that's contiunous with the periosteua of articulating bones
    • -inner synovial membrane of loose connective tissue that covers all internal joint surfaces not covered with hyaline cartilage

    • 4. Synovial Fluid: occupies free space in joints
    • -viscous slippery fi;trate of plasma and hyaluronic acid
    • -lubricates and noursishes the articular cartilage
    • -reduces friction between cartilages

    • 5. 3 Different types of reinforcing ligaments
    • a. Capsular (instrinsic)- part of the fibrous caspsule
    • b. Exatrcapsular- outside the capsule
    • c. Intracapsular- deep to the capsule; covered by synovial membrane

    • 6. Rich nerve and blood vessel supply
    • -nerve fibers detect pain, monitor joint position and stretch
    • -capillary beds produce filtrate for synovial fluid
  16. Synovial Joints: friction-reducing structures
    • -flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes
    • -contain synovial fluid
    • -commonly act as ball-bearins where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together
  17. Synovial Joints: friction-reducing structures
    Tendon Sheath
    • -enlongated bursae that wraps completely around a tendon
    • -common where seeveral tendons are crowded together in narrow canals, like in the wrist
  18. Difference between a ligament and a tendon
    ligaments: bone to bone

    tendons: bone to muscle
  19. Stablizing Factors of synovial joints
    • 1. Shapes of the articular surface
    • -minor role
    • -help to determine what kind of movement, but some shallow sockets don't really help at all

    • 2.Ligmanet number and location
    • -limited role
    • -prevents excessive and undesireable motion, however the joint is not very stable when ligaments are the major means. They only stretch to about 6% before they snap

    • 3. Muscle tone
    • -keeps tendons that cross joints taught
    • -extremely important in reinforcing shoulder and knee joints and arches of the foot
  20. Synovial Joints: Movement
    • Muscles attach acrosss a joint:
    • 1. origin-attachments to the immovable bone
    • 2. insertion- attachment to the movable bone

    • -muscle contraction cases the insertion to move toward the origin
    • -movements occur along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes
  21. Synovial Joints: range of motion
    • 1. Nonaxial- slipping movements only
    • 2. Uniaxial- movement in one plane
    • 3. Biaxial- movement in two planes
    • 4. Multiaxial- movement in or around all 3 planes
  22. Movements of Synovial Joints
    • -simplest joint movement
    • -when one flat or nearly flat bone glides over another at no angle
    • exmaples: intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, between articular processes of vertebrae
  23. Movements of Synovial Joints
    Angular Movements
    • movements occur along the sagittal plane:
    • Flexion- decreases angle
    • Extension- increases angle
    • Hyperextension- increases angle beyond anatomical position
    • movements that occur along the frontal plane:
    • Abduction- moving away from the medial body
    • Adduction- moving towards the medial body
    • Circumduction- cone shape movement
  24. Movements of Synovial Joints
    Lateral and Medial rotations

    • -the turning of a bone around its own long axis
    • example: c1 and c2 vertebrae, rotation of humerous and femur
  25. Movements of Synovial Joints
    Supination and Pronation
  26. Movements of Synovial Joints
    Dorsiflextion and plantar flexion
  27. Movements of Synovial Joints
    Inversion and eversion
  28. Movements of Synovial Joints
    protraction and retraction
    -movements ina transverse plane
  29. Movements of Synovial Joints
    elevation and depression
  30. Movements of Synovial Joints
    • movement in the saddle joint so that the thumb touches the tips of the other fingers
  31. Classification of Synovial Joints
    Based on the shape of the articular surface
  32. Classification of Synovial Joints
    Plane Joint
    • -non axial joint
    • -flat articular surfaces
    • -short gliding movements (gliding is the only example of a plane joint)
  33. Classification of Synovial Joints
    Hinge Joints
    • -Uniaxial joints
    • -motion along a simple plane
    • -flexion and extension only
  34. Classification of Synovial Joints
    Pivot joints
    • -Rounded one end of bone conforms to a "sleeve" or "ring" of another bone
    • -Uniaxial movement only
    • Example: C1 and C2 allow you to say no
  35. Classification of Synovial Joints
    Condyloid (Ellipsoidal) Joint
    • -Biaxial Joints
    • -Both articular surfaces are oval (one oval fits into the depression of another)
    • - Permit all angular movements
  36. Classification of Synovial Joints
    Saddle Joints
    • -Biaxial
    • -allow greater freedom of movement than condyloid joints
    • -Each articular surface has both concave and convex areas
  37. Classification of Synovial Joints
    Ball and Socket Joint
    • -Multiaxial joint
    • -the most freely moving synovial joints