chapter 12

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chapter 12
2012-02-26 23:11:28

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  1. During the political crisis following the fall of the Han, the Great Wall
    During the political crisis following the fall of the Han, the Great Wall
  2. What made possible the rapid revival of the empire under the Tang?
    the preservation in the many kingdoms of the Confucian traditions that had been central to Chinese civilization
  3. Wendi was the man responsible for the
    establishment of the Sui dynasty.
  4. Under the first Sui emperor...
    ever-ready granaries were created to relieve the threat of famine.
  5. Excessive military expenses and grandiose building projects led to...
    the downfall of the second Sui emperor and the collapse of the dynasty.
  6. Li Yuan was...
    the Duke of Tang, founder of the new dynasty.
  7. What was the attitude of the Tang emperors toward the Confucian scholar-gentry?
    The Tang supported the resuscitation of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy.
  8. The Ministry of Rites was responsible for the...
    administration of the Confucian examination system.
  9. What was the title reserved for those who passed the most difficult exams on all of Chinese literature?
  10. Pure Land Buddhism
    stressed salvation.
  11. As a result of imperial suppression,
    Buddhism survived in a reduced state without much political influence.
  12. Yang Guifei was...
    an imperial concubine who exerted great influence on a Tang emperor and introduced many of her relatives into the imperial government.
  13. What accounts for the relative weakness of the Song empire?
    The military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier.
  14. Under the Song emperors, the scholar-gentry
    continued its ascent over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals.
  15. Zhu Xi was
    the most prominent of the neo-Confucians during the Song era.
  16. The growing influence of neo-Confucianism in China during the Tang-Song era
    led to reinforcement of class, age, and gender distinctions.
  17. What Song prime minister in the 1070s and 1080s attempted to introduce reforms based on the Legalist school of Confucianism?
    Wang Anshi
  18. What invading group caused the flight of the Song from northern China?
  19. The era between 220 and 589 that featured endless wars fought by the patchwork of regional kingdoms following the fall of the Han in China was referred to as the __________.
    Era of Division
  20. __________ was a member of a prominent northern family following the fall of the Han who proclaimed himself emperor and established the Sui dynasty.
  21. The second member of the Sui dynasty __________ murdered his father to gain the throne, then restored the Confucian examination system.
  22. Minister for Yangdi, __________ the Duke of Tang, took over the empire following the assassination of the last emperor of the Sui dynasty.
    Li Yuan
  23. The __________ administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars.
    Ministry of Rites
  24. The title granted to those students who passed the most difficult Chinese examinations on all of Chinese literature was __________.
  25. The __________ variant of Buddhism, more attractive to the members of the Chinese elite, stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty.
  26. The __________ variant of Buddhism emphasized the salvationist aspects of the faith and appealed to the masses of Chinese society.
    Pure Lands
  27. __________ was the emperor of the Tang dynasty who openly persecuted the Buddhist monasteries beginning in 840.
    Wu Zong
  28. Raised to the status of royal concubine during the reign of Xuanzong, __________ introduced members of her family into the administration leading to revolt.
    Yang Guifei
  29. Originally a general following the fall of the Tang, __________ was the founder of the Song dynasty.
    Zhao Kuangyin
  30. The most prominent of the Neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty, __________ stressed the importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action.
    Zhu Xi
  31. __________ was a Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in the 1070s who introduced sweeping reforms based on the Legalists.
    Wang Anshi
  32. The nomadic __________ were the founders of the Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China and forced the Song to flee to the south.
  33. The rump state of the Song dynasty from 1127 to 1279 was referred to as the __________.
    Southern Song
  34. Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders were called __________.
  35. __________ was a Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage.
    Flying Money
  36. The capital of the Tang dynasty with a population of two million was __________.
  37. __________ was the capital of the later Song dynasty.
  38. The Chinese counterpart of the Islamic veil and seclusion, __________ produced pain and restricted women's movement outside the household.
  39. The most famous poet of the Tang era, __________ blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
    Li Bo
  40. Li Yuan
    Known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gazou
  41. Khitans
    Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
  42. Changan
    Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time.
  43. Tangut
    Rulers of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of regional kingdoms during period of Southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226
  44. Jurchens
    Founders of the Qin kinggdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River Basin and forced Song to flee to south.
  45. Yang Guifei
    Royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into royal administration led to revolt
  46. Empress Wu
    Tang Ruler 690~705 CE in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
  47. Neo-Confucians
    Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
  48. Wendi
    Member of prominent northern Chineses family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty
  49. Mahayana/Pure Land Buddhism
    Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society
  50. Southern Song
    Rump state of Song dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of much larger domains ruled by the Tang and northern Song; culturally one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history.
  51. Grand Canal
    Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long.
  52. Xi Xia
    Kingdom of Tangut people, north of Song kingdom, in the mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry.
  53. Wang Anshi
    Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070's; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society
  54. Xuanzong
    Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned form 713 to 755 though he encouraged overexpansion.
  55. Zhu Xi
    Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action.
  56. Liao dynasty
    Founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; maintained independence frmo Song dynasty in China
  57. Zhao Kuangyin
    Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent.
  58. Yangdi
    Second memmber of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618
  59. Hnagzhou
    Capital of later Song dynasty; locted near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million.
  60. Jin
    Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by Jurchen in 1115 after overthroing Liao dynasty