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what are the two lines of defense vs. pathogens?
- 1) non-Specific defense ( Guard against any pathogen)
- 2) Specific defense ( A response against a very specific target)
What is specific defence and what cell is it carried out by?
- * Mount a response against a very specific target
- *Carried out by Lymphocytes that recognize a specific invader
7 non-specific defense mechanisms
- 1) Species resistance
- 2)Mechanical Barriers
- 3)Chemical barriers
- 5)Natural Killer Lymphocytes
What is a virus?
A very small piece of a DNA or an RNA never both
- *Hormone like pedtides that serve as anti-viral substances
- *Produce by virus or infected cell
- *Interfere with viral transcription
- *may induce nearby cells to produce anti-viral enzymes
During a fever what happens to iron levels in the blood?
2 Fuctions of NK cells (lymphocytes)
- *responsible for recognizing and destroying abnormal cells
- *Defend the body by releasing PERFORINS (little holes) which destroys effected cell
6 Major inflammatory response
- 1)Blood vessels dialate
- 2)Increase capillary permeability
- 3)Increase white blood cells
- 4)Increase in body fluids and fibrin
- 5)Fibroblast (scar tissue)
- 6)Pagocytosis and cell replacement
What are the 2 most active phagocytes during phagocytosis, the size of the particle they consume, and how do they leave the blood stream ?
- 1)Neutrophils (small particles)
- 2)Monocytes (large particles)
-Leave blood stream via diapedesis
during phagocytosis monocytes become what?
Macrophages- some fixed some free
What are the 3 mononuclear phagocytic system?
What is immunity ?
The response by the body against specific, recognized foreighn antigens. Self vs non-self. The resistance to specific pathogens.
What is another name for an antigen?
What is an antigen?
The body inventory of "self proteins" capable of elicting an immune response.
What is a Hapten?
A small molecule that combines with and antigen and becomes antigenic.
What is an Antigenic?
Capable of starting an immune response.
During fetal development red marrow releases what percent of T-lymphocytes into circulation?
Where do B-cells mature?
What is the precursor of a t-cell?
What % of B-Cells are circulating lymphatic organs?
What is an antigen presenting cell?
A macrophage that has ate the bacterium and it shows on the macrophages surface.
What stimulates the B-cells to divide and make copies of themselves?
What do B-cells divide themselves into ?
Plasma cells and memory cells
What is Cytokines and what cell is it released by?
released by activated t-cells to enhance cellular response to antigens.
What is proliferate?
increase , multiply, go forward
what are the 4 types of cytokines?
- colony stimulating factors
- tumor necrosis factor
what is a colony stimulating factor?
A type of cytokine that stimulates bone marrow to produce lymphocytes.
Cytokine Specific immunity
What do interferons do? (3)
- Block viral replication
- stimulate macrophages to engulf viruses
- stimulate B cells to produce antibodies
What are interleukins and what do they do?
They are a type of cytokine, in specific defenses , that control lymphocyte differentiation and growth
How do t-cells attack foreighn antigen bearing cells?
By direct cell to cell contact, providing cell mediated immunity.
How is a t-cell activated?
They must first come in contact with a macrophage displaying the same antigen, if the antigen fits the right helper t-cell , then it becomes activated.
What are the three major types of t-cells
- Helper t-cells
- memory t-cells
- cytotoxic t-cell
What stimulates the B-cells?
has a no-delay response to any future exposure to the same antigen.
what are Cytotoxic cells and what type of cell is it?
specialized T-cells thatcontinually monitor the bodys cells, and gets rid of virus and tumor infected cells by realeasing perforin.
What are the functions of b-cells?
B-cells attack pathogens by differentiating into plasma cells that secrete antibodies, small number of these will become memory cells.
Antibody mediated immunity
- Antigens are destroyed through body fluids.
- *cytokines dont go through air they go through fluids.
what group do antibodies belong to ?
How is a b-cell activated?
When an activated helper t-cell encounters a b-cell (which has already encountered an antigen) The helper T cell releases cytokines. This may activate the b-cell to divide and make copies.
what are plasma cells?
Specialized b-cells that produce and secrete a produce antibodies.
What is the antibody molecule of immunoglobulins?
Gamma globulin fraction of plasma.
each immunoglobulin molecule is composed of what ?
4 chains- 2 light 2 dark of amino acids
what serves as a UNIQUE antigen-binding sites?
Variable regions at the end of the chains.
Defends against bacterial cells, viruses, and toxins; Activates complement.
B cell activation
Promotes inflammation and allergic reactions.
React to antigens in 3 ways
- 1)direct contact- agglutination, percepitation, and neutralization of antigens.
- 2)activation of complement- can produce opsonization (making the antigen sticky so antigen can stick better), chemotaxis, inflammation, or lysis in target cells.
- 3)stimulation of changes- in areas that prevent pathogen spreading.
what is a primary immune response?
when b or t cells become activated for the first time. after some cells stay as memory cells.
What is another name for allergic reactions? and what is it?
Hypersensitivity reactions- excessive immune responses that may lead to tissue damage.
What is an antibody dependent cytotoxic reaction?
Occurs when blood transfusions are mismatched
what is an immune complex allergic reaction?
involve auto immunity
what happens during allergic reactions?
mast cells(activated by B-cells) release histamine and seratonin
what are the 4 types of transplants?
- Iso graph-Donor from identical twin.
- Autograph- Self (skin from one place to another)
- Allograph- from same species ( close matched donor)
- Xenograph-Different species