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What is anabolism?
- Production of macromolecules and chemicals from "building blocks" and energy.
- Reducing power is provided by NAD(P)H and H+
What is catabolism?
- Generation of energy (ATP) and reducing power (NAD(P)H and H+) from nutrients.
- By products may be used as precursor molecules for anabolism
What are the percentages by dry weight of macromolecules within a cell?
- Protein = 55%
- RNA = 20.5%
- Lipids = 9.1%
- Polysaccharides = 5%
- Lipopolysaccharides = 3.4%
- DNA = 3.1%
What are most nutrient elements that a cell uses?
N, S, and P
Carbon represents how much of a cell's dry weight?
What is the difference between Defined Culture Medium and Complex Culture Medium?
- Defined culture medium contains the specific nutreints needed by an organism. May contain more or less components based on the organism it is tailored to.
- Complex culture medium is more broad, it contains extracts of complex things therefore the exact composition is not defined. It is useful because a variety of organisms can survive in it
What are the 3 basic metbolic pathways required to produce all of the precursors needed for anabolism?
- 1. Glycolytic pathway (glycolysis, Embden-Meyerhof pathway)
- 2. Pentose phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate pathway)
- 3. Tricarboxylic acid pathway (TCA cycle, citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle)
During glycolysis, one molecule of glucose (6C) yields what?
- 2 molecules of pyruvate (3C)
- Net yield of 2 ATP and 2 NADH+H+ (4 ATP produced, but 2 are needed)
How is ATP produced during glycolysis?
By substrate-level phosphorylation
What is the source of reducing power for most anabolic reactions?
Some NADPH+H+ is produced how?
By the pentose phosphate pathway
What can Ribose 5-phosphate be used to create after the pentose phosphate pathway?
ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA
In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, where are the enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway present?
In the cytoplasm
The pentose phosphate pathway can lead to the generation of a diversity of what?
During respiration, pyruvate can be completely oxidized to what?
CO2 and H2O
Pyruvate is first oxidized to what to begin TCA?
How is GTP used in TCA?
Can be used to phosphorylate ADP to produce ATP and GDP, or used for some anabolic reactions and for regulation by GTPases
Succinate dehydrogenase is a large protein complex located where?
In the membrane
What must be regenerated, or the TCA cycle will stop?
What is the net effect of one turn of the TCA cycle?
- 2 CO2
- 1 GTP (ATP)
- 3 NADH+H+
- 1 FADH2
- and in the care of pyruvate, 1 more NADH+H+ is produced
In aerobic respiration, what is the terminal electron acceptor?
What is the process that uses energy produced by respiration to synthesize ATP called?
What are the complexes of aerobic respiration?
- Complex I: NADH dehydrogenase
- Q: quinone
- Complex II: succinate dehydrogenase
- Complex III: cytochrome bC1
- Complex IV: terminal oxidase
How is the proton motive force (pmf) created?
Respiration results in the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient
What is the PMF used for?
- Flagellum rotation
- Transport across membrane
- Synthesis of ATP
How many protons are needed to phosphorylate 1 ADP to ATP using the PMF?
What is the equation for the PMF?
- Δp = ΔΨ + (-zΔpH) = ΔΨ - zΔpH
- Δp = pmf
- ΔΨ = membrane potential (mV)
- ΔpH = transmembrane pH gradient (pH out - pH in)
- z = conversion factor for pH into mV
Glycolysis + TCA yields how many ATP per glucose?
What is fermentation?
- An organic compound serves as the electron donor and an organic degradation product serves as the final acceptor of electrons (no oxygen present)
- Succinate cannot be oxidized
- Glycolytic pathway can still function
What is the net yield of fermentation?
2 ATP per glucose