micro chap 21

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micro chap 21
2009-11-22 01:02:55

infectious diseases affecting the respiratory system
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  1. - humans are easily infected with it but are resistant to the disease
    - only about 5% of infected people actually develop a clinical case of it
    - untreated progresses slowly
    - clinical is divided into primary, secondary, and disseminated
  2. - period of hidden infection- asymptomatic or accompanied by mild fever
    - after 3 to 4 weeks, immune system mounts a cell-mediated assault- large influx of mononuclear cells into lungs
    - tubercles form
    - frequently the centers of tubercles break down into necrotic caseous lesions that gradually heal by calcification
    - tuberculin reaction
    primary tuberculosis
  3. - live bacteria can remain dormant and become reactivated weeks, months, or years later
    secondary (reactivation) tuberculosis
  4. -tubercles filled with bacteria expand and drain into bronchial tubes and upper respiratory tract; severe symptoms such as violent coughing, greenish or bloody sputum, low-grade fever, anorexia, weight loss, extreme fatigue, night sweats, chest pain
    chronic tuberculosis
  5. -outside of the lungs
    - more common in immunosuppressed patients and young children
    - regional lymph nodes, kidneys, long bones, genital tract brain, and meninges
    -complications are usually grave
    extrapulmonary tuberculosis
  6. -anatomical diagnosis
    -inflammatory condition of the lung in which fluid fills the microorganisms
    - can be caused by a wide variety of different microorganisms
    - viral are usually milder than bacterial
    - benign with upper respiratory tract symptoms, including runny nose and congestion
    - headache common
    - fever is often present
    - onset of lung symptoms follows: chest pain, fever, cough, discolored sputum