May involve both external, physical, such as quarrels, journeys, or confronting adversaries, and internal, psychological actions, such as learning something about others or oneself, making decisions, or gaining perspective
A narration or description usually restricted to a single meaning because its events, actions, characters, setting and objects represent specific abstractions or ideas. Emphasis on what they mean
Allows for two or more simultaneous interpretations of a word, phrase, action, or situation, al of which can be supported by the context of the work.
THe character, force, or collection of forces in fiction or drama that opposes the protagonist and gives rise to the conflict of the story
A protagonist who has the opposite of most of the traditional attributes of a hero. may be bewildered, ineffectual, deluded, or merely pathetic.
a term used to describe universal symbols that evoke deep and sometimes unconscious responses in a reader.
characters, images, and themes that symbolically embody universal meanings and basic human experiences regardless of when or where they live.
ex quests, initiations, scapegoats, descents to the underworld, ascents to heaven
an approach to literature which suggests that knowledge of the author's life experiences can aid in the understanding of his or her work.
those works generally considered by scholars, critics, and teachers to be the most important to read and study, which collectively constitute the masterpieces of literature
meaning purgation, release of emotions of pity and fear by the audience at the end of a tragedy.
person presented in a dramatic or narrative work
process by which a writer makes that character seem real to the reader
an idea or expression that has become tired and trite from overuse its freshness and clarity having worn off,
a work intended to interest, involve and amuse the reader or audience in which no terrible disaster occurs and that ends happily for the main characters
a humorous scene or incident that alleviates tension in an otherwise serious work
struggle within the plot between opposing forces. protagonist engages in the conflict with the antagonist which may take the form of a character society nature or an aspect of the protagonists personality
a characteristic of a literary genre (often unrealistic) that is understood and accepted by audiences because it has come through usage and time, to be recognized as a familiar technique
a turning point in the action of a story that has a powerful effect on the protagonist . opposing forces come together decisively to lead to the climax of the plot
an approach to literature which suggest that literary works do not yield fixed, single meanings, because language can never say exactly what we intend it to mean. seeks to destabilize meaning by examining the gaps and ambiguities of the language of texts.
a type of informal diction. spoken by definable groups of people from a particular geographic region, economic group, or social class. used to contrast and express differences in educational, class, social, and regional background of their characters
the verbal exchanges between characters, makes the characters seem real to the reader or audience by revealing firsthand their thoughts, responses, and emotional states
a writers choice of words, phrases, sentence structures, and figurative language, which combine to create meaning.
a narrative device, often used at the beginning of a work, that provides necessary background info about the characters and their circumstances. Explains what has gone on before, the relationships between characters, the development of a theme, and the intro of a conflict
an approach to literature that seeks to correct or supplement what may be regarded as a predominantly male dominated critical perspective with a feminist consciences. places literature in a social context and uses a broad range of disciplines, including history , sociology, psychology and linguistics, to provide a perspective sensitive to feminist issues. womens point of view
ways of using language that deviate from the literal, denotative meanings of words in order to suggest additional meanings or effects. say one thing in terms of something else
figures of speech
a narrated scene that marks a break in the narrative in order to inform the reader about events that took place before the opening scene of a work
a character in a work whose behavior and values contrast with those of another character in order to highlight the distinctive temperament of that character
the intro early in a story of verbal and dramatic hints that suggest what is to come later
an approach to lit that focuses on the formal elements of a work, (language, structure, and tone) diction irony, paradox, metaphor, symbol, plot, characterization, narrative technique, nothing outside of work examined
french word- kind or type. major ex poetry, fiction, drama, essays. comedy, tragedy, epic poetry, science fiction
approach to lit that uses history as a means of understand a lit work more clearly. beyond the facts of an authors personal life and the text itself in order to examine the social and intellectual currents in which the author composed the work
excessive pride or self confidence that leads a protagonist to disregard a divine warning or to violate an important moral law
a word, phrase, or figure of speech, that addresses the senses, suggesting mental pictures of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, feelings, or actions. offer sensory impressions to the reader and also coney emotions and moos through their verbal pictures
ex simile /metaphor
a literary device that uses contradictory statements or situations to reveal a reality different from what appears to be true.
an approach to lit that focuses on the ideologic content of a work, its explicit and implicit assumptions and value about matters such as culture, race, class, and power. Describe the competetive socioeconomic interests that too often advance capitalist interest such as money and power rather than socialist interests such as morality and justice
figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, without using the word like or as. assert the identity of dissimilar things.
an approach to lit that seeks to identify what in a work creates deep universal responses in readers, by paying close attention to the hopes, fears, and expectations of entire cultures. look for underlying, recurrent patterns in lit that reveal universal meanings and basic human experiences for readers regardless of when and where they leave.
the voice of the person telling the story, not to be confused with the authors voice.
an approach to it made popular between the 40s-60's that evolved out of formalist criticism. detailed analysis of the language of literary text can uncover important layers of meaning in that work. consciously downplays the historical influences, authorial intentions, and social context that surround texts in order to focus on explication.
an approach to it that emphasized the interaction between the historic context of the work and a modern readers understanding and interpretation of the work. attempt to describe the culture of a period by reading many different kinds of texts and paying close attention to different dimension of a culture(political, economic, social, aesthetic concerns?
freudian term derived from Sophocles tragedy. describes a psychological complex that is predicted on a boys unconscious rivalry with his father for his mothers love and his desire to eliminate his father in order to take his fathers place with his mother
an authors election and arrangement of incidents in a story to shape the action and give the story a particular focus. what happens, but how and why things happen the way they do.
who tells us a story and how it is told.
point of view
an approach to lit that draws upon psychoanalytic theories, impulses, desires, and feelings about which a person in unaware but which influence emotions and behavior
an approach to lit that focuses on the reader rather than the work itself, by attempting to describe what goes on in the readers mind during the reading of the text no single definitive reading of a work
reader response criticism
the conclusion of a plots conflicts and complications
aka falling action
the lit art of ridiculing a folly or vice in order to expose or correct it. object usually some human frailty, people, institutions, idea,s, and things evokes attitudes of amusements, contempt, scorn, or indignation toward its faulty subject in the hope of somehow improving it
a pejorative term used to describe the effort by an author to induce emotional responses in the reader that exceed what the situation warrants.
the physical and social context in which the action of a story occurs. time, place, and social environment that frames the characters, can be used to evoke a mood or atmosphere that will prepare the reader for what is to come.
the most intense use of a central consciousness in narration. takes a reader inside a characters mind to reveal perceptions, thoughts, and feelings on a conscious or unconscious level,
stream of consciousness technique
the secondary action of a story, complete and interesting in its own right that reinforces or contrasts withe the main plot.
the anxious anticipation of a read or an audience as to the outcome of a story especially concerning the character or characters with whom sympathetic attachments are formed.
a person, object, image, word, or event that evokes a range of additional meaning beyond and usually more abstract that its literal significance. economical devices for evoking complex ideas without having to resort to painstaking explanations that would make a story mors like an essay than an experience
the central meaning or dominate idea in a literary work. provides a unifying point around which the plot, characters, setting, point of view, symbols, and other elements of a work are organize. abstract concept that is made concrete through the images, characterization, and action of the text
the authors implicit attitude toward the reader or the people, places, and events in a work as revealed by the elements of the author's style. serious or ironic, sad or happy, private or public, angry or affectionate, bitter or nostalgic